Haemoglobinuria: - Haemoglobin may be present in urine in haemoglubinuria or haematuria (differentiated by presence of R cheap malegra dxt uk. Bacteruria: • To collect a urine sample one of the following methods should be used: - Cleaning of the area around the urethra and a midstream urine is collected discount malegra dxt 130 mg. False low count may occur with high urine flow cheap malegra dxt 130 mg mastercard, antibiotic treatment or contaminated container discount 130mg malegra dxt with mastercard. At the same time someone may wrongly give hypoglycaemic drugs which are dangerous in such cases so caution should be taken on diet and treatment of glycosuria. This is largely due to the following: 1- The fact that multiple environmental factors could be working together, 2- Difficulty in confirming and quantifying the exposure to a certain environmental toxin; and 3- The lack of specific clinical or pathologic presentation of different environmental toxin. The kidney is more prone to environmental toxins for the following reasons: 1- The kidney is the principal organ for excretion of different toxins; 2- High renal blood flow; 3- Extensive surface of endothelial contact with toxins; 4- Positive intraglomerular hydrostatic pressure; 5- The medullary counter-current multiplier system leading to more accumulation of toxic agents and their metabolites in the renal medulla. The environmentally-induced renal injury may be tubulo- interstitial, glomerular or combined. Tubulo-interstitial lesions may be in the form of acute tubular necrosis (such as exposure to high concentration of mercury) or chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (such as chronic exposure to low doses of lead). Glomerular lesions may be due to direct toxicity (such as deposition of gold in basement membrane and silica in the mesangium) or immunologically-induced (for example immune complex disease in chronic exposure to hydrocarbons). Environmental chemicals with nephrotoxicity includes solvents, hydrocarbons, heavy metals and fungal toxins. Volatile Hydrocarbons (Organic Solvents) As Environmental Nephrotoxins Types of exposure include: • Ingestion or inhalation of carbon tetrachloride; • Intentional sniffing of cleaning fluid (toluene-containing glues, trichlorethylene, 1,1,1,-trichloroethane); • Suicide attempts by ingestion of tetralin; • Occupational exposure (inhalation of trichloroethylene, diesel fuel and toluene, paints, glue, degreasing solvents); • Washing hands and hair with diesel fuel; • Domestic solvent inhalation. Heavy Metals As Environmental Nephrotoxins These include lead, cadmium, mercury, uranium and arsenic. Moreover, therapeutic forms of gold, bismuth and platinum can cause nephrotoxicity. Silicon, beryllium, lithium, barium and selenium are not heavy metals (specific gravity <5) but may cause nephrotoxicity. Lead nephrotoxicity: Prior to the industrial revolution the normal total body burden of lead was 2mg. Exposure: a) Occupational: metal smelting workers, miners, storage battery workers, pottery makers, automanufacturers, ship builders, paint manufacturers and painting industry. Acute lead nephropathy: This may manifest as acute renal failure with Fanconi syndrome and systemic disease including abdominal colic, anorexia, vomiting, constipation, anaemia, peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy. Lead containing inclusion bodies will be detected in renal tubular cells, urine, liver, neural tissue and osteoblasts. Chronic lead nephropathy: Histologically, it will appear as a slowly progressive tubulointerstitial nephritis. Clinically, this manifests as chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricaemia and gout. These manifestations are associated with others, including gastrointestinal, haematologic and neurologic. In the hypertensive gouty patient with chronic renal failure and without stone disease, chelation test may detect an unrecognized lead exposure. Chronic lead nephropathy, especially if diagnosed and treated early could be arrested or its progression is retarded. Cadmium nephropathy: Source of exposure: Cadmium is a component of metal alloys, in the manufacture of electrical conductors, electroplating storage batteries, aircraft industries, as a by-product of iron smelting, as a pigment, in ceramics, glass, in plastic stabilizer, in photographic developer, rubber or dental prosthetics. Cadmium toxicity: The acute absorption of as little as 10 mg of dust or fumes will cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms; and 12 hours later, pulmonary oedema. Early renal manifestations are those of adult Fanconi syndrome, tubular proteinuria and renal tubular acidosis. Vitamin D and calcium may be of help for bone disease, but may aggravate renal disease (by more stone formation). Mercury nephrotoxicity: Mercury toxicity depends on its chemical form and route of administration. Elemental mercury is harmless when ingested but when its vapour is inhaled will be very toxic. Toxicity is usually caused by methyl, ethyl, or phenoxyethyl organic salts and the chloride salt. Acute mercury nephrotoxicity will manifest as acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis associated with erosive gastritis, haematemesis and melena. Arsenic nephrotoxicity: Elemental arsenic is not toxic, but the pentavalent, trivalent salts and arsine gas (Arsine) are very toxic. Radiation injury It may be defined as any somatic or genetic disruption of function or form caused by electromagnetic waves or accelerated particles. These could be ultraviolet radiation, microwave radiation, high intensity ultrasound and ionized radiation from natural or man made sources. Exposure: a) Medical: Staff or the public may be affected by a malfunction or during repair of machinery in radiotherapy departments. Patients subjected to radiotherapy may be affected and can be a source of irradiation to others. This could be through ingestion or inhalation of long-lived isotopes (such as radium and plutonium). Radiation Nephrotoxicity: a) Immediate: decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Infective (biological) environmental risk factors a) Parasitic: for example malaria, schistosoma and hydatid disease. Ochratoxins arise from fungus Aspergillus ochraceus, discovered in the mid 1960s during a search for new toxic substances from moulds. Ochratoxin nephrotoxicity • Ochratoxins induce nephropathy and kidney tumours in rodents, dogs, pigs and birds. The later, as other fungus- contaminated grains, could produce nephropathy in animals and human. I learned a lot firsthand about what I had been seeing in my patients for the last ten years or so: not only chronic health prob- lems in my patients but also a new problem of how children and spouses now have to take care of an ever-growing unhealthy, aging population with a multitude of chronic diseases. These patient care experiences, along with taking care of my mother, had a profound impact on me. These experiences rein- forced the need in my own life as I passed the half-century mark, as well as in my patients (and society), that the daily practice of these three lifestyle components (diet, exercise, and stress man- agement) were not only very important for staying well but also for our society to remain viable socially and economically as it rapidly ages. It had a sense of urgency and renewed passion to it—to really get back into the health education game and make the impact that I believed was possible. The time was now for a book for everyone—not just health professionals interested in nutrition and prevention research but for people like my patients. As I mentioned previously, it was becoming even more obvious to me that most of my patients really wouldn’t need to be in my office and the offices of others if they practiced some daily basic health promoting principles. In fact, it has become obvious to me that the whole healthcare reform debate has nothing to do with the gov- - xxi - staying healthy in the fast lane ernment really. It has to do with you and me practicing these basic principles of wellness on a daily basis. When my mother passed, which was the most beautiful family experience of my life, it became very clear that it was time for me to embark on this book that I have had in my consciousness, prac- ticed personally, researched, and taught about since 1983. I designed a five-part Staying Healthy lecture series (Staying Healthy in the Fast Lane, Reversing Diabetes, Reversing Obesity, Reversing Heart Disease, and Healthy Aging) and began to teach again. It reminded me how much I loved and missed being up in front of people, sharing solid self-help information. It also reminded me of how life-giving and healing teaching and sharing information with others is for me. The ultimate goal in this Staying Healthy series was to show where the modern, industrialized world was heading with the ev- er-increasing incidence of chronic diseases and their human and economic costs. My intent for these seminars was to show that lifestyle factors, especially dietary changes, that have occurred over the last fifty to one hundred years as the world industrial- ized, are the main causes of these largely preventable chronic dis- eases (heart disease, diabetes, obesity, etc. From researching, preparing, and refining this five-part series, along with interviewing wonderful physicians, researchers, and book authors (Staying Healthy Today Show), it became evident that not only were these chronic diseases preventable, but many were also reversible through aggressive lifestyle practices. Now, after hundreds of hours of not only writing and editing, but more research, multiple rewrites, and the hardest part, cutting down a wordy, disjointed 450-page manuscript in half, the book you are reading is the end result. There is one additional and important aspect to the devel- opment of this book that is worth mentioning. In a way, this is - xxii - preface a type of autobiography about me: your basic middle-aged male who is right in the middle of that time when men get chronic dis- eases and are also very busy with a lot of self-inflicted pressure and self-worth issues—a prescription for health problems. In hindsight, there are several reasons why I didn’t start writ- ing this book twenty-five years ago.
Universal Free E-Book Store Cancer Prognosis 219 Effective targeted cancer therapeutic development depends upon distinguishing disease-associated ‘driver’ mutations buy discount malegra dxt, which have causative roles in pathogenesis of malignancy purchase malegra dxt 130mg free shipping, from ‘passenger’ mutations buy cheap malegra dxt, which are dispensable for cancer initiation and maintenance cheap malegra dxt 130mg without a prescription. Translational studies of clinically active targeted therapeutics can deﬁnitively discriminate driver from passenger lesions and provide valuable insights into human cancer biology. A subset of the genes that are mutated in patients with myeloid cancers is frequently mutated in apparently healthy persons; these mutations may represent characteristic early events in the development of hematologic cancers. Some somatic mutations are likely to be associated with a particularly high risk of subsequent cancer; larger studies could identify such mutations. Single-cell analyses might identify high-risk combinations of mutations occur- ring in the same cells. Sequencing of speciﬁc cell types might identify mutation and cell-type combina- tions with higher predictive value. Initial detection of clonal hematopoiesis might justify periodic screening for the presence of cooperating mutations at low allele frequencies that could presage cancer. Universal Free E-Book Store 220 10 Personalized Therapy of Cancer Impact of Biomarkers on Management of Cancer Biomarkers are playing an important role in the diagnosis as well as management of cancer. Predictive Biomarkers for Cancer Unpredictable efﬁcacy and toxicity are hallmarks of most anticancer therapies. Predictive markers are factors that are associated with response or resistance to a particular therapy. For malignancies other than breast cancers, validated predictive markers are not available as yet. The concept of the utilization of rear- ranged ends for development of personalized biomarkers has attracted much attention owing to its clinical applicability. Most tumors do not contain rearrangements, but the location of these rear- rangements varies from one individual to the other, making them good biomarker candidates. Previous studies on sequencing individuals’ genomes were focused on single-letter changes, but later studies looked for the swapping of entire sections of the tumor genome. Universal Free E-Book Store Determination of Response to Therapy 223 VeraTag™ Assay System for Cancer Biomarkers The VeraTag™ assay system (Monogram Biosciences) is a high performance, high throughput system for studies of gene expression, protein expression and for appli- cations such as cell signaling and pathway activation, protein-protein interaction and cell receptor binding. The system uses proprietary VeraTag™ reporters to mul- tiplex the analysis of genes and/or proteins from the same sample. The VeraTag™ assay system is ideally suited to analysis of complex biology such as that seen in cancer. These unique assays can precisely measure many types of pathway bio- markers simultaneously−using small samples, such as those obtained from stan- dard tumor biopsies. These biomarkers could be used to correlate disease type and progression, resulting in improved treatment. Further research will be aimed at applying VeraTag™ assays to retrospective analysis of patient samples from clinical trials for validation and diagnostic development. It can accelerate the development of tar- geted therapeutics, improve clinical trial design and results, clarify and individual- ize the selection of medications, and optimize outcomes for patients with cancer. Determination of Response to Therapy Several approaches have been investigated for predicting and monitoring response to anticancer chemotherapy. Capecitabine (Roche’s Xeloda) is a novel, oral ﬂuoropyrimidine carbamate ratio- nally designed to generate 5-ﬂuorouracil preferentially in tumor tissue via a three- step enzymatic cascade. Companion diagnostic tests based on various biomarkers−thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase − are being inves- tigated to predict responders to this therapy. Ex Vivo Testing of Tumor Biopsy for Chemotherapy Sensitivity Many oncologists are beginning to believe that new techniques to evaluate tumors’ responses to chemotherapeutic agents promise a future of personalized cancer man- agement. Hence, highly responsive cancers are those with the greatest degree of apoptosis in the laboratory. The Company has developed a novel regimen for refractory ovarian cancers−gemcitabine plus cisplatin. Study results showed a correlation between ex vivo sensitivity and resistance and patient out- come. The Gynecologic Oncology Group, a multicenter non-proﬁt organization sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, is conducting a national clinical trial of the gemcitabine plus cisplatin combination for treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer. It is not been used for ﬁrst-line treatment for ovarian cancer yet because it has not been proved that anything is more effective than platinum and Taxol. But assays can pro- vide valuable information for its selection as a second-line treatment. Lack of efﬁ- cacy of the drug could be due to the drugs’ inability to be delivered to the tumor or inappropriate levels of drug. In 50–60 % of the instances, a drug is not effective in vivo even though the in vitro assays predict efﬁcacy. ChemoFx Assay (Helomics) is an ex vivo assay designed to predict the sensitiv- ity and resistance of a given patient’s solid tumor to a variety of chemotherapy agents (Brower et al. A portion of a patient’s solid tumor, as small as a core biopsy, is mechanically disaggregated and established in primary culture where malignant epithelial cells migrate out of tumor explants to form a monolayer. Cultures are veriﬁed as epithelial and exposed to increasing doses of selected che- motherapeutic agents. The number of live cells remaining post-treatment is enumer- ated microscopically using automated cell-counting software. The resultant cell counts in treated wells are compared with those in untreated control wells to Universal Free E-Book Store Determination of Response to Therapy 225 generate a dose-response curve for each chemotherapeutic agent tested on a given patient specimen. Features of each dose-response curve are used to score a tumor’s response to each ex vivo treatment as “responsive,” “intermediate response,” or “non-responsive. A cell line from one person would be killed dramatically, while that from another person can be resistant to exposure to the anticancer agent. Because gene expression is the most accurate predictor of alkylation sensitivity, there are good prospects for translating these ﬁndings to a clinical set- ting to predict whether a tumor will respond to alkylation chemotherapy. Genomic Analysis of Tumor Biopsies Genomic Health Inc is developing a service to provide individualized genomic anal- ysis of tumor biopsies to physicians as a guide to treatment of patients with cancer. This approach is now being tested in clinical trials Universal Free E-Book Store 226 10 Personalized Therapy of Cancer on patients with breast cancer and lung cancer. This technology will allow physicians to tailor the treatment and prognosis for an individual patient, using a small panel of genes selected from thousands of genes. Genotype-Dependent Efﬁcacy of Pathway Inhibition in Cancer Therapeutic inhibition of genetically activated oncoproteins can induce massive apoptosis of tumor cells, which may lead to dramatic regression of cancer. However, efﬁcacy of downstream pathway inhibition is limited by release of negative feedback loops on the reciprocal pathway. By contrast, combined blockade of both pathways can over- come the reciprocal pathway activation induced by inhibitor-mediated release of negative feedback loops and results in a signiﬁcant increase in tumor apoptosis. Mutation Detection at Molecular Level It is known that genetic mutations are responsible for sensitizing some tumor cells to chemotherapy, while other mutations render tumor cells completely resistant to drug treatments. Next generation sequencing can be used for the detection of cancer gene mutations present at extremely low levels. The method is not only very sensitive, but it is also quantitative and provides a digital display of gene varia- tion within tumors. It identiﬁes rare cancer-associated genetic variations at the molecular level, potentially enabling the personalization of targeted therapies. Ultimately, this system will enable personalized med- icine, such as identifying the early stages of drug resistance and facilitating a change in treatment that is tailored to a patient’s unique genetic response. Role of Genetic Variations in Susceptibility to Anticancer Drugs Genetic variations in susceptibility to anticancer drugs has been investigated using a genome-wide model of human lymphoblastoid cell lines from the International HapMap consortium, of which extensive genotypic information is available (Huang et al. This model integrated genotype, gene expression, and sensitivity of HapMap cell lines to drugs. Associations were evaluated between genotype and cytotoxicity, genotype and gene expression and gene expression of the identiﬁed candidates was correlated with cytotoxicity. The analysis identiﬁed 63 genetic vari- ants that contribute to etoposide-induced toxicity through their effect on gene expression. This method can be used to elucidate genetic variants contributing to a wide range of cellular phenotypes induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Non-genetic Factors for Variations in Response of Cancer Cells to Drugs It is well known that not all cells of a particular cell type react to cancer treatments uniformly and genetics alone cannot explain sensitivity or resistance to chemother- apy. Protein state is trans- mitted from mother to daughter, giving rise to transient heritability in fate, but pro- tein synthesis promotes rapid divergence so that sister cells soon become no more similar to each other than pairs of cells chosen at random.
Without Diagnosis is made via observation and can be con- treatment order malegra dxt in india, anemia and malnutrition can develop malegra dxt 130mg online. An firmed with X-rays showing bony injuries; an arthro- example of a roundworm is Trichuris trichiura malegra dxt 130 mg line, also gram in which contrast dye is injected into the known as the human whipworm generic 130 mg malegra dxt mastercard. Without treatment, including coma virus, a virus that is the cause of a serious exercise, the outlook is not very good. Also known as congenital called misoprostol to terminate pregnancy at an rubella syndrome. See also Appendix A, the rubella (German measles) virus before the birth “Prescription Abbreviations. The syndrome is characterized by logical catalog, an indicator that one will need a mental retardation and multiple birth defects, prescription to buy a listed item. Certain concentrations of both sodium and chloride Sabin vaccine See polio vaccine, oral. For example, the alveolar saccules are little air pouches within the Salk vaccine See polio vaccine, inactivated. For example, angel’s kiss), on the eyelids, or on the nape of the sacral agenesis is absence of all or part of the neck (called a stork bite). A salmon sacral agenesis Absence of all or part of the patch is a collection of capillaries. See also caudal regression syndrome; are of no consequence and tend to disappear in sacrum. By adulthood, the sacral vertebrae are poisoning, gastroenteritis, and enteric fever from normally fused to form the sacrum. See also food poison- tebrae are represented by the symbols S1 through ing; Salmonellosis. Symptoms usually between the lumbar vertebrae and the coccyx (tail- begin within 12 to 24 hours after exposure and may bone). It is triangular in shape and forms the back include stomach cramps, diarrhea, fever, and some- wall of the pelvis. From the Latin os examination of a stool sample for Salmonella bacte- sacrum, meaning “sacred bone” because it was ria. See also pelvis; sacral vertebrae; within a few days and do not require treatment vertebral column. The term safe centrations of both sodium and chloride in the sex is generally used to mean sex without penetra- blood are essential for normal body functions. Symptoms begin around 6 symptoms including warmth, tenderness, pain, months of age, with motor weakness, and progress swelling, and stiffness of involved joints (arthritis); to include difficulties with swallowing and breath- fluid-filled blister-like areas (pustules), typically on ing. Sandhoff disease the palms of the hands and/or the soles of the feet, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a and peeling and flaking of skin in those areas; abnor- mutation in the gene for the beta subunit of hex- mal, excessive growth of bone, frequently at the osaminidase on chromosome 5. See mation of the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), as well as also Tay-Sachs disease. On a biochemical level, Sanfilippo syn- causes small lumps (granulomas) due to chronic drome is characterized by the excess excretion of inflammation in body tissues. Sarcoidosis can heparan sulfate in the urine and the accumulation of appear in almost any body organ, but it most often mucopolysaccharides in the central nervous system starts in the lungs or lymph nodes. On the genetic level, there are four the eyes, liver, and skin; and less often it affects the types of Sanfilippo syndrome (types A, B, C, and D), spleen, bones, joints, skeletal muscles, heart, and each due to deficiency of a different enzyme. In the majority of cases, the types are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner granulomas clear up with or without treatment. The saphenous veins carry deoxy- Ewing; Kaposi sarcoma; sarcoma, soft-tissue; genated blood from the feet and legs toward the sarcoma, synovial. Ewing sarcoma usually appears in way up to the saphenous opening, an oval aperture http://www. See also rhabdomyosarcoma; sar- include chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation ther- coma; sarcoma, soft-tissue. Some examples leading to the production of a chimeric (fusion) of saturated fat are butter, lard, meat fat, solid short- protein. In all cases the chimeric protein is oncogenic; that is, it is sawbones Slang for a physician, especially a sur- geon, and in particular an orthopedic surgeon. Sulfur in petrola- tum (10 percent) is one of few effective scabicidal sarcoma, soft-tissue A sarcoma that begins in treatments that may be used safely without fear of the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or toxicity in very small children and in pregnant other supporting tissue of the body. A comas most often occur in adolescents or young magnifying glass reveals short, wavy lines of red adults, are typically slow-growing, and may escape skin, which are the burrows made by the mites. They occur mainly Treatment involves use of several scabicide medica- in the arms and legs, near large joints, especially the tions. Although the tumor is called synovial sar- coma, it has never been shown to arise from syn- scabies, keratotic A severe form of scabies that ovial cells (the cells that line a joint), and the cell of is caused by delaying treatment of the initial infesta- origin is not known. Keratotic scabies is characterized by mite-filled coma can be suspected via X-ray or imaging, made lesions covered with scabs. These lesions often via biopsy, and confirmed via cytogenetic studies become infected with bacteria such as staphylococ- that show a translocation (an exchange of material) cus. The tumor tends to recur locally and to involve local lymph scan 1 Data or an image obtained from the exam- nodes. Distant spread (metastasis) occurs in half of ination of organs or regions of the body by gather- cases, sometimes many years after the initial diag- ing information with a sensing device. The group A streptococcal bacteria pro- duce a toxin that causes a scarlet rash that initially Schmorl’s node An upward and downward pro- appears on the neck and chest, then spreads over trusion (pushing into) of a spinal disk’s soft tissue the body, and lasts around 3 days. Scarlet fever is usually with minor degeneration of the aging spine, are not a serious illness when treated promptly with detectable via X-ray as spine abnormalities. However, untreated Schmorl’s nodes are most common in the middle streptococcal infection can cause kidney inflamma- and lower spine. Schwann cell An insulating cell found in the peripheral nervous system that surrounds nerve Scheuermann’s disease A skeletal disease that fibers (axons). Schwann cells form the myelin usually begins in adolescence in which the verte- sheath that facilitates the conduction of impulses brae grow unevenly, resulting in wedge-shaped ver- along the nerve. Also known as juvenile kyphosis and curvature of schwannoma A tumor that arises in the Schwann the spine. Although sciatica can result (flat affect), agitation, catatonia, confusion, psy- from a herniated disc pressing directly on the nerve, chosis, unusual behavior, and social withdrawal. Treatment options Treatment involves use of neuroleptic medication include avoiding movements that further irritate the and supportive interpersonal therapy. The progno- condition, use of medication, physical therapy, and sis is fairly good, with two-thirds of those diagnosed sometimes surgery. This condition is very scintigraphy A diagnostic test in which a two- rare in young children, but it occurs with more fre- dimensional picture of a body radiation source is quency in the teenage years. For known as childhood schizophrenia, but it is a com- example, scintigraphy of the biliary system (cho- pletely different disorder. See also autism; child- lescintigraphy) is done to diagnose obstruction of hood disintegrative disorder; developmental the bile ducts by a gallstone, a tumor, or another disorder; schizophrenia. The chemical • E Esophagus (esophageal involvement is removed from the blood by the liver and secreted by the scleroderma) into the bile that the liver makes. The chemical then • S Sclerodactyly (localized thickening goes everywhere that the bile goes: into the bile and tightness of the skin of the fingers or ducts, the gallbladder, and the intestine. By placing toes) over the abdomen a camera that senses radioactiv- • T Telangiectasias (dilated capillaries ity, a picture of the liver, bile ducts, and gallbladder that form tiny red areas, frequently on the can be obtained that corresponds to the location of the radioactivity. There is technique sometimes used as a supplemental test in some evidence that genes play at least a partial role the detection of breast cancer. The immune system plays a can sometimes work better than standard mam- central role in the disease process. It is not unusual mography in situations where there is considerable to find other autoimmune diseases in families of uncertainty, as in women who have especially dense scleroderma patients. The disease occurs more fre- sclera The tough white outer coat that covers the quently in females than in males. The sclera is continuous in sclerosing cholangitis See primary sclerosing the front of the eye with the cornea and in the back cholangitis.Share this