By A. Samuel. Loyola Marymount University. 2019.
First cheap levitra soft 20mg without a prescription, the church purchase levitra soft 20mg without prescription, generally purchase discount levitra soft on line, has rejected the power of God through ignorance or unbelief buy 20mg levitra soft overnight delivery. We have substituted the power of God with education, effort, charisma, and extremely low expectations. Had she been dressed like a homeless hag and was seen talking to herself, someone would have discerned (smile) that she had a problem. But the problem is most people with demonic problems do not look like people who would have problems with demons. The church is so woefully and embarrassingly ignorant in this area that it does not believe Christians can have demons. Although she was attractive, Satan had convinced her that she was physically ugly. But to the woman who is constantly harassed by cruel thoughts that make fun of her appearance, it’s a big deal. If she isn’t able to resist such thoughts, Satan will eventually be able to establish in her mind a stronghold of rejection. Her entire thought process will be polluted with low self- esteem and irrational fear. Her true self will be submerged under layers of demonic lies and expectations of bad things. The only scenario I can think of where such a person could possibly be considered possessed (although I believe the word to be extremely exaggerated), is if the person listened to Satan’s lies to such a degree that the personality is severely affected in a consistently and noticeable way. At this point, the victim’s mental state is obviously irrational, and perhaps even delusional. But, generally, people with these types of tormenting demons usually are quite functional. That’s one good reason why we need to consider dropping the word “possessed” from our vocabulary. The Faulty Concept of Demon Possession To say a person is demon possessed is to create a concept that is not biblical. It would have been much more accurate to consistently translate daimonizoma as “to have a demon. Fortunately, there are several excellent full- length books on deliverance that do a fine job of 4 correcting this discrepancy. Although the unfortunate use of the word “possession” is frequent, there are other places in the Bible where there are better translations. It’s extremely important for us to understand the difference between having a demon and being possessed of a demon. Having a demon is a biblical concept; possession by a demon is a concept created by a bad translation of a couple of key words. It’s the one ministry that graphically shows the world how completely defeated he really is. He, therefore, uses this mistranslation to prejudice Christians—especially leaders—against this powerful ministry. He does so by seducing them into believing that the only candidates for this ministry of power are those who are totally controlled by Satan. And, of course, the logical conclusion to this reasoning is if you are totally controlled by Satan, you certainly can’t belong to God. How could a person be possessed of God and possessed of the devil at the same time? The devil has succeeded at getting many to equate having a demon with being possessed of a demon. What Christian would submit to deliverance ministry, if by doing so it’s seen as a confession of having never been saved? So multitudes of Christians who have demons don’t get help because they don’t understand what it means to have a demon. What It Means to Have a Demon A person who has a demon is simply a person whose spiritual, mental, or physical self has been accessed by a demon. Satan now inflicts greater damage from the inside than he could’ve done from the outside. Below you’ll see how a natural or bad situation is worsened when a demon finds access. Before Demonic Access After Demonic Access Has doubts of God and spiritual matters that can Doubts grow larger no matter what the be erased by Bible person does. It becomes impossible or study, prayer, fellowship, nearly impossible to believe the Bible. Can pray, worship, and Attempts to pray, worship, and read the read the Bible with Bible causes a rush of evil thoughts, pain, natural, moderate sleepiness, or shaking of a body part. Person can’t give or unwanted, but not receive love; can’t trust; expects the allowed to control life. Has bad problems with anger, rage, Emotions sometimes hatred, sorrow, self-pity, jealousy, causes problems. Serious mental problems such as severe Mild mental weaknesses indecision, forgetfulness, confusion, common to humanity. It’s important to notice that the above table can apply to Christians and non-Christians. Can we truthfully accuse every Christian with such problems as hypocrites or carnal? Can we accuse the pastor, who has consistently proven his love for Christ, of not loving Christ simply because he has never found victory over pornography? If we will be brutally honest, we’d have to admit that we may be listed in this column. Unless we have successfully hidden our weakness or sin, others already know about it anyway. Delivered from a Demon of Pain About a year after I repented of my sins and believed the gospel, something happened to me that many Christians believe can’t happen to a servant of God. Unfortunately, these ferocious headaches had been part of my life since about nine years of age. They would come upon me suddenly and beat me down with pain that is impossible to describe. It felt as though someone was inside of my skull with a jackhammer banging every nerve. Yet this was the first time I could recall having felt a force literally enter my head. As I lay on the floor in agonizing pain, wondering what had happened, Minister Edley rebuked the devil several times. For once that headache subsided, it was the second to the last time I received a headache of that sort. As I stated above, only those who suffer these types of migraine headaches understand the misery they cause. Many of them are suffering a direct attack of a spirit of sickness and don’t know it. Unfortunately, because the ministry of casting out demons has been largely neglected or rejected by the church, most of them will never be healed as I was. For those who deny that Christians can have demons, my own experience is proof enough for me that we certainly can. I can truly say that if I was not a true Christian when that demon of sickness entered me that early Sunday morning in 1980, then I certainly am not a Christian now. I still believe that He is the eternal Creator, and that He was born of a virgin and lived a sinless life. We’ll shortly establish from the scriptures and real life experiences that Christians can have demons. But I will limit our discussion to their activities in the area of sickness, disease, emotional problems, and spiritual oppression. The Bible graphically shows us that Satan, through his demons, is intimately involved in the affairs of people. Paul said in Ephesians 6:12 that “we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
If abnormalities are detected on any of the echocardiographic studies buy levitra soft 20mg online, additional studies will usually be ordered by the cardiologist purchase 20 mg levitra soft with visa, with frequency and length of Fig levitra soft 20 mg fast delivery. Color Doppler echocardio- graphy: parasternal short axis view color Doppler shows direction of blood flow buy levitra soft 20 mg without a prescription. Typically, the setting is such that red color indicates flow towards the probe, while blue is blood flow away from the probe. The illustration on the left hand shows cardiac anatomy, red and blue color- ing reflects well oxygenated and poorly oxygenated blood in different cardiac chambers. This coloring scheme should not be confused with the red and blue coloring of color Doppler follow-up determined by the severity of the abnormalities. It is important to note that it is difficult to obtain high quality coronary imaging on a fussy infant or young child, which may necessitate the use of sedatives to enable completion of echocardiography. In addition, for any infant or child with ³5 days of fever and only 2–3 classic clinical criteria, or elevated inflammatory markers but <3 supplemental lab criteria, an echocardiogram can be used to help make the pre- sumptive diagnosis. In patients with systemic hypertension, the first echocardiogram should include a full anatomy study to rule out aortic coarctation, as well as an assessment of left ventricu- lar wall thickness and function. Subsequent yearly follow-up examinations should be done to look for abnormal increases in left ventricular mass or changes in function. The diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary hypertension includes the use of echocardiography. In cases of obstructive sleep apnea, the extent to which hypoventilation has affected the heart can be assessed through measurement of Fig. On the other hand, the motion of ventricular walls in the patient in (b) is flat reflecting limited ventricular wall motion 4 Pediatric Echocardiography 61 Fig. The illustration on the left hand shows cardiac anatomy, red and blue coloring reflects well oxygenated and poorly oxygenated blood in different heart chambers. This coloring scheme should not be confused with the red and blue coloring of color Doppler right ventricular pressure (using tricuspid valve Doppler or interventricular septal position), wall thickness, and function. Patients with sickle cell disease and increased pulmonary artery pressure as estimated by echocardiography have higher mortality. Cardiomegaly or other abnormal cardiovascular findings noted on X-ray, espe- cially if associated with other signs or symptoms of potential heart disease should prompt echocardiography. If possible, pericardial effusion is suspected, especially in the setting of hemodynamic compromise possibly representing cardiac tampon- ade, emergency echocardiography is indicated and may be used to assist in pericar- diocentesis (Fig. Patients suspected of having connective tissue disease such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers–Danlos syndrome should have echocardiography. Specifically, echocar- diogram is used to evaluate the aortic root in individuals with suspected Marfan syndrome and to evaluate for Mitral Valve prolapse. Echocardiography is indicated for surveillance in various genetic disorders (Table 4. Patients diagnosed with Tuberous Sclerosis should undergo echocar- diography to evaluate for rhabdomyomas. Since this is an autosomal dominant disease with various organ involvements, echocardiography is useful in screening family members. Other appropriate indications for ordering an echocardiogram include workup of possible Rheumatic fever to look for evidence of carditis, infectious endocarditis to rule out vegetation, or valve lesions associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Saline contrast echocardiography should be requested in cases of stroke to rule out 62 W. Not associated with additional congenital heart disease Marfan syndrome Aortic root dilation, aortic dissection, mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromata of the heart, renal artery stenosis, and renal hypertension (continued) 4 Pediatric Echocardiography 63 Table 4. Another rare indication for contrast echocardiography is in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, in which pulmonary arteriovenous malformations can be life- threatening. In patients exposed to potentially cardiotoxic agents, such as chemotherapy including anthracyclines, baseline and routine interval follow-up echocardiograms are used to follow left ventricular function. When to Request a Cardiac Consultation First In infants outside of the neonatal period, children, and adolescents with a possible pathologic murmur or other abnormal cardiac auscultation finding, it is usually most effective and efficient to start with the cardiologist’s evaluation. In many cases the murmur or other finding may be determined to be innocent and echocardiogra- phy is not required. When echocardiography is indicated, the study is often assisted by having specific likely diagnoses listed based on the cardiologist’s assessment, and decisions about need for sedation, timing of study, and immediate interpreta- tion of results to patient and family is facilitated. Likewise, patients with other findings such as tachypnea, failure to thrive, or cyanosis are best referred to the cardiologist, rather that ordering an echocardiogram directly. The workup of stridor and/or difficulty in swallowing should exclude a possible vascular ring, which can be definitively diagnosed by echocardiography, but can be difficult, especially in laboratories with little experience in aortic arch anomalies in small children. Chest pain is common in older children and adolescents and, unless associated with exertion, is usually not due to cardiac disease. Echocardiography is rarely needed, as careful history and physical examination, are usually all that is required to exclude heart disease. Likewise, syncope, unless during exercise, is usually not due to structural heart disease and often does not need echocardiography in the workup. An abnormal electrocardiogram should first be confirmed by a cardiologist prior to decisions about further testing such as echocardiography. Screening for occult heart disease in patients being considered for use of stimu- lant medication or as part of pre sports participation evaluation requires careful and directed history and physical examination, but does not include screening echocar- diography. If further concerns arise, the patient should then be referred to a cardiologist for further evaluation. What to Expect from an Echocardiogram Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for defining intracardiac anatomy of congenital heart defects. The connections of major systemic veins and pulmonary veins can be defined, as well as the pulmonary arteries and the aortic arch with its major branches. In most cases, coronaries arteries, at least proximally, can also be imaged and their origins clearly defined. Doppler technology allows the detection of blood flow velocity and direction, and provides an ability to estimate pressures and pressure gradients. Color Doppler enables detection of shunting, even in cases where defects are too small to detect by imaging. In addition, global systolic and diastolic function as well as regional wall mechanics can now be investigated in detail. Stress echocardiogra- phy can assess changes in hemodynamics and function with exertion. Limitations of Echocardiography Echocardiography is highly dependent on the skill, expertise, and experience of the sonographer and the interpreting physician. Important congenital defects can be missed due to incomplete or inadequate imaging or to incorrect interpretation of the images. Ultrasonography requires adequate tissue windows, without interference from air or other structures that reflect sound. In certain conditions, such as severe obesity, pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, severe scoliosis or pectus excavatum, or when chest bandages are present, adequate windows cannot be obtained. Chapter 5 Cardiac Catheterization in Children: Diagnosis and Therapy Anas Saleh Lutfi Taqatqa, Umang Gupta, Ra-id Abdulla, and Ziyad M. Hijazi Key Facts • Diagnostic cardiac catheterization is performed with much less frequency than the past due to advancement of other, less invasive, imaging modali- ties. Diagnostic cardiac catheterization may be required if other imaging modalities are not informative, hemodynamic evaluation to assess extent of shunts, cardiac output and pressure measurements are needed. Common interven- tional procedures include balloon dilation of stenotic valves, cardiac biopsy, closure of septal defects, and occlusion of abnormal communica- tions and unwanted vessels. Introduction Cardiac catheterization uses intravascular catheters to access cardiac chambers and vascular structures to obtain hemodynamic information such as pressure and oxygen saturation as well as enable injection of contrast material while recording radiographic movie clips (angiogram), thus providing details of cardiac anatomy and pathology. Pressure measurements obtained through catheters and wires during catheteriza- tion allow accurate pressure measurements of various chambers and vessels and the detection of any pressure gradients across stenotic valves or vessels. Hijazi (*) Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 W. The combination of pressure and cardiac output measurements allow for the determination of vascular resistances (systemic and pulmonary) which are essential to determine therapeutic options in children with heart diseases. Angiograms obtained through opacifying cardiac chambers and vascular structures through contrast injection continue to be an essential tool in diagnosis of heart diseases in children.
Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Promulgated 2001 Contained - Targeted: Microbiological and Turbidity order levitra soft 20 mg on line. Waterborne Diseases ©6/1/2018 262 (866) 557-1746 Distribution System Water Quality Problems Turbidity Turbidity is caused by particles suspended in water buy levitra soft 20mg with mastercard. Turbidity is expressed in nephelometric turbidity units (ntu) and a reading in excess of 5 ntu is generally noticeable to water system customers cheap 20 mg levitra soft with visa. Besides the appearance being unpleasant to customers order cheap levitra soft on line, turbidity in water is significant from a public health standpoint because suspended particles could shelter micro-organisms from the disinfectant and allow them to still be viable when they reach the customer. Increases in turbidity may be caused by changes in velocity or inadequate flushing following main replacement. Hardness Hardness is a measure of the concentration of calcium and magnesium in water. Water hardness usually comes from water contacting rock formations, such as water from wells in limestone formations. Soft ground water may occur where topsoil is thin and limestone formations are sparse or absent. Hard and soft water are both satisfactory for human consumption, but customers may object to very hard water because of the scale it forms in plumbing fixtures and on cooking utensils. Hardness is also a problem for some industrial and commercial users because of scale buildup in boilers and other equipment. Soft water usually is quite corrosive, and may have to be treated to reduce the corrosivity. Waterborne Diseases ©6/1/2018 263 (866) 557-1746 Iron Iron occurs naturally in rocks and soils and is one of the most abundant elements. Ferrous iron (Fe2) is in a dissolved state, and water containing ferrous iron is colorless. Water from some well sources contains significant levels of dissolved iron, which is colorless, but rapidly turns brown as air reaches the water and oxidizes the iron. At high levels, the staining of plumbing fixtures and clothing becomes objectionable. Iron also provides nutrient source for some bacteria that grow in distribution systems and wells. Iron bacteria, such as Gallionella, cause red water, tastes and odors, clogged pipes, and pump failure. Whenever tests on water samples show increased iron concentrations between the point where water enters the distribution system and the consumer’s tap, either corrosion, iron bacteria, or both are probably taking place. If the problem is caused by bacteria, flushing mains, shock chlorination, and carrying increased residual chlorine are alternatives to consider. It does not usually discolor the water, but will stain washed clothes and plumbing fixtures black; this is very unpopular with customers. Water Quality Safeguards The critical safeguard for water distribution system operations are continuous positive pressure in the mains; 20 pounds per square inch (psi) minimum residual pressure is recommended; maintenance of chlorine residual; cross-connection control; and frequent testing. Waterborne Diseases ©6/1/2018 264 (866) 557-1746 Water Quality Key Words 2,4-D: A chlorinated phenoxy compound, functions as a systemic herbicide and is used to control many types of broadleaf weeds. There are many forms or derivatives (esters, amines, salts) of 2,4-D and these vary in solubility and volatility. This compound is used in cultivated agriculture and in pasture and rangeland applications, forest management, home and garden situations and for the control of aquatic vegetation. However most of the problems associated with the use of Agent Orange were associated with a contaminant (dioxin) in the 2,4,5-T component of the defoliant. The association of 2,4-D with Agent Orange has prompted a vast amount of study on the herbicide. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber. Today, asbestos is most commonly found in older homes, in pipe and furnace insulation materials, asbestos shingles, millboard, textured paints and other coating materials, and floor tiles. Its oxide is historically known as baryta but it reacts with water and carbon dioxide and is not found as a mineral. A bivalent element, beryllium is a steel grey, strong, light-weight yet brittle alkaline earth metal. It is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, most notably beryllium copper. Commercial use of beryllium metal presents technical challenges due to the toxicity (especially by inhalation) of beryllium-containing dusts. A relatively abundant, soft, bluish-white, transition metal, cadmium is known to cause cancer and occurs with zinc ores. Cadmium is used largely in batteries and pigments, for example in plastic products. A chlorite (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +3. It is a steel-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. It is a strong acid, and the major component of gastric acid, and of wide industrial use. Hydrochloric acid must be handled with appropriate safety precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid. The resulting ferric oxide is insoluble, and appears as brown gelatinous slime that will stain plumbing fixtures, and clothing or utensils washed with the water carrying it, and may contribute to internal corrosion of the pipes and fixtures the water flows through. The proliferation of iron bacteria, in some way, increases the chance of sulfur bacteria infestation. This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese. The principal use for MnO2 is for dry-cell batteries, such as the alkaline battery and the zinc-carbon battery. It is used extensively as an oxidizing agent in organic synthesis, for example, for the oxidation of allylic alcohols. Nephelometric refers to the way the instrument, a nephelometer, measures how much light is scattered by suspended particles in the water. For substances it is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m ). The carbon in the biological treatment process acts as a "buffer" against the effects of toxic organics in the wastewater. If the level controller may be set with too close a tolerance 45 could be the cause of a control system that is frequently turning a pump on and off. These systems do not have to test or treat their water for contaminants which pose long-term health risks because fewer than 25 people drink the water over a long period. This agency sets federal regulations which all state and local agencies must enforce. The term often is used in a legal or regulatory context and in such cases the precise definition is a matter of law. The term may refer both to well characterized organic compounds and to mixtures of variable composition. This rule also applies to any system that mixes surface and groundwater if the groundwater is added directly to the distribution system and provided to consumers without treatment. Additional protection of groundwater from both chemical and microbial contamination from shallow wells (including cesspools) is expected to be provided as a result of recent revisions to the Underground Injection Control Regulations, published December 7, 1999 (19). Waterborne Diseases ©6/1/2018 269 (866) 557-1746 Surface water systems are also required to monitor for the presence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, total culturable viruses, and total* and fecal coliforms or Escherichia coli >1 time/month for 18 months. Recreational Water Regulation of recreational water is determined by state and local governments. Standards for operating, disinfecting, and filtering public swimming and wading pools are regulated by state and local health departments and, as a result, are varied. The guideline recommends that the monthly geometric mean concentration of organisms in freshwater should be <33/100 mL for enterococci or <126/100 mL for Es. States have latitude regarding their guidelines or regulations and can post warning signs to alert potential bathers until water quality improves. Unlike treated venues where disinfection can be used to address problems with microbiological quality of the water, contaminated freshwater can require weeks or months to improve or return to normal.
Since the range of etiologic agents have not been identified buy levitra soft 20 mg overnight delivery, there is no definitive laboratory diagnostic procedure effective 20mg levitra soft. Affected chicks can be gathered from the flocks at approximately 10 days of age and placed in a common pen where they can be provided with feed and water and protected from competition from normal pen-mates generic 20mg levitra soft free shipping. Stunted chicks will grow slowly levitra soft 20 mg sale, and can be salvaged for live-bird sale or processing as low- weight birds. Isolation of affected chicks may reduce the probability of lateral transmission of virus. The following components should be considered: • levels of methionine and lysine should attain or exceed breed specifications 131 • selenium level should range from 0. Inactivated reoviral vaccines administered during the late rearing period should contain antigenic components which are known to be protective against the reovirus strains (1733) considered responsible for stunting-malabsorption syndrome. The cost of anticoccidial feed additives and treatment is estimated to exceed $400 million annually in all poultry producing areas of the world. Infected, recovered chickens shed oocysts representing a problem in multi-age operations. Oocysts can be transmitted mechanically on the clothing and footwear of personnel, contaminated equipment, or in some cases, by wind spreading poultry-house dust and litter over short distances. Factors contributing to outbreaks of clinical coccidiosis include:- • litter moisture content exceeding 30% due to ingress of rain or leaking waterers. To confirm a diagnosis in a commercial operation the following specimens should be submitted to a laboratory: • Intestine from a sacrificed, affected bird preserved in 5% potassium dichromate for culture and identification of Eimeria sp. Administration of water dispersable vitamin A and K supplements may enhance recovery. Nipple drinkers reduce spillage of water onto litter compared to bell and trough drinkers. Anticoccidial vaccines are appropriate for replacement breeding stock and roasters. This approach is cost-effective but requires experienced and 135 diligent management and monitoring especially if the vaccine is applied over feed. Intraocular administration by spray or the insertion of a gelatine cylinder impregnated with oocysts in the chick delivery box contributes to an even distribution of vaccine through the flock. Future control measures will include in ovo vaccination of broiler embryos with a highly purified oocyst suspension (Inovocox®). Administration of a vaccine (Coxabic®) derived from gametocytes to replacement pullets has been shown to confer immunity to progeny, obviating the need for anticoccidials. Careful examination of intestinal tracts from at least 5 clinically normal sacrificed birds per flock is necessary to monitor for coccidiosis. Obvious distention and hemorrhage of the ileum (middle of the intestinal tract) due to infection with Eimeria necatrix. This condition is associated with concurrent Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia leading to necrotic enteritis. Severe Eimeria brunetti lesion in the intestine, proximal and distal to the cecal bifurcation. Necrotic enteritis is often initiated by an alteration in the feeding program (commencing skip-a-day feeding of replacement breeder pullets or accidental starvation) environmental stress, overstocking, withdrawing anti-coccidial growth- stimulating feed additives, vaccination, movement or weighing of flocks, or saturation of litter. Clostridium botulinum is responsible for botulism, an enterotoxemia resulting in progressive paralysis. Successive flocks in some regions show frequent or persistent outbreaks possibly due to high levels of Clostridium spp in soil or the presence of drug-resistant strains. The economic significance of clostridial enterotoxemia varies, but erosive losses of up to 4% can occur in broiler and immature breeder flocks due to direct mortality or concurrent infection with systemic bacteria. Ingestion of the vegetative form of the organisms invariably result in colonization of the intestinal tract. Chickens with botulism show ascending paresis and then paralysis extending craniad from the legs, impairing locomotion. Terminally affected birds are in sternal recumbency with flaccid necks, ruffled plumage and extension of the nictitating membrane over the cornea. Botulinum toxin can be identified in the blood of severely affected broilers by injecting 0. In floor-housed breeders and commercial layers reduction in egg production occurs. Parasitism can be diagnosed by examination of mucosal scrapings and fecal flotation, which reveal characteristic bi-operculated ova. Treatment Fenbendazole in feed or levamisole or ivermectin (where permitted) in drinking water. Death may occur due to intestinal obstruction in birds which are immunosuppressed or are affected by an intercurrent debilitating condition. Other nematodes which may be encountered in subsistence or small-scale flocks include: Oxyspirum mansoni – a 1. Tetrameres americana – a 3 mm ( ) spherical nematode beneath the mucosa of the proventriculus. Treatment Piperazine, levamisole, or ivermectin (where permitted) in drinking water. Cestodiasis results in emaciation in mature flocks, especially if severe infestation is exacerbated by malnutrition or immunosuppression. Choanotaenia infundibulum - a 25 cm cestode located in the distal duodenum and jejunum. Raillietina echinobothridia - a 30 cm cestode of the jejunum resulting in nodular granulomas and catarrhal enteritis. Microscopic examination of intestinal scrapings is necessary to determine the presence of endoparasites. Filarid parasites are infrequently observed in the body cavity of backyard fowl and exotic birds at post mortem examination. Presence of Syngamus trachea parasites in the trachea of an infected backyard fowl. This condition can also occur following administration of toxic levels of nitrofurans to immature flocks. This occurs in growing chicks due to decreased formation of bone below the growth plates of the tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus. Mildly affected chickens show stunting and enlargement of the hock joint with reduction in the length of the leg bones. The lesion progresses to severe deformation of the hock joint culminating in displacement of the gastrocnemius (Achilles) tendon (perosis). Chondrodystrophy is characterized by a high prevalence in the flock, bilateral involvement of the hock joints and reduction in length of the long bones. Confirmation of the diagnosis requires analysis of feed to determine manganese content. Lesions of rickets showing, bending of the tibiotarsus, distortion of the ribs and enlargement of the costo- condral junctions. Occurrence and Economic Significance Viral arthritis occurs world-wide and is responsible for losses in both commercial broilers and replacement breeding stock. Lateral spread from infected carrier chick occurs, especially during the first 48 hours after hatch. Under commercial conditions, indirect transmission is possible through contaminated equipment and from improperly cleaned housing. Clinical Signs Affected birds aged approximately 30 days onwards show an increasing prevalence of lameness characterized by unilateral or bilateral arthritis of 146 the hock and stifle joints. Up to 10% of the flock may be affected and lame birds generally die from dehydration or persecution. Pathology Both serous arthritis and teno-synovitis are observed, especially involving the hock and gastrocnemius tendon. Rupture of the tendon occurs in severe cases, and may be responsible for losses in hens at onset of sexual maturity. Diagnosis The causal organism can be isolated from synovial (joint and tendon) fluid. Histopathology of affected tissues shows lymphocytic infiltration and reticular cell proliferation. Chronic cases show fibrosis of the tendon sheaths which can be palpated in birds which have recovered from the infection.
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