This manual describes the requirements for the safe handling cheap levitra professional, quality assurance and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals discount levitra professional 20 mg free shipping, as well as protocols for general radiation safety and radiation protection in nuclear medicine practices order cheapest levitra professional and levitra professional. It characterizes tissue 20mg levitra professional mastercard, for example, as cancerous or not, but, at the same time, relies on quality assurance at all levels for hardware and software, as well as competence in technology, physics and medicine. The manual endeavours to demonstrate the universality of nuclear medicine, its uniformity and harmony. Other benefits of nuclear medicine include safety, non-invasiveness and cost effectiveness. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on distance learning and on ‘hub and spoke’ type systems, so that local data acquisition can be transferred to a centre for data analysis and for second, or specialist, reporting. As the pendulum of change swings towards free enterprise and market oriented economies, health care and medical services are also moving into the realm of business and industry. Efficient management is essential to the success of any undertaking, and nuclear medicine is no exception. It should be regarded as an enterprise that requires efficient organi- zation and management if it is to adapt successfully to the pressure of change brought by the new market order. Human resources act as the hub that drives all the other resources in an enterprise, whether material or financial, and their strategic importance cannot be ignored. Human resources can be defined as the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the workforce in a given organization, including the values and attitudes of the individuals making up the organization. No development is possible without proper planning, and human resource planning is a prerequisite to human resource development. Human resource planning in nuclear medicine must provide for the implementation of ongoing activities, meeting the demands of changing technologies and expansion programmes, replacing a workforce dwindling as a result of retirement or separation, and deploying staff to take care of any excess or shortage as the case may be. To summarize, the objective of human resource planning in nuclear medicine should be to optimize the human resource contribution to its growth and development, and to prepare nuclear medicine to meet the inevitable challenge of change. It is imperative to define the objectives of a nuclear medicine enterprise in order to forecast future needs. A comparison of current human resources with future needs will reveal deficiencies or gaps in the competence of the workforce and provide a framework for remedial action. Proper job analysis will lead to a clear division of responsibilities and avoid unnecessary duplication and overlap. These steps represent the groundwork for realistic and, above all, practical human resource planning. While doing all these, it is good to keep in mind that practicality should be given preference over perfection. In developing countries, the objectives of nuclear medicine can vary from country to country. They are borne out of the inherent strengths of nuclear medicine, namely its tracer principle and the capability to exploit newly emerging technologies to its advantage. The same goals can, however, also be defined from the more pragmatic point of view of medical imperatives. This is of particular relevance to developing countries, where there is a sense of urgency arising from the external challenges facing the practice of nuclear medicine today. These challenges include competing medical technologies for diagnosis, ever shrinking health care budgets in comparison with the demands, and an increasing awareness on the part of the consumers of their right to high quality services and products. In the short term, the goals in nuclear medicine are to: (a) Demonstrate the appropriateness of procedures for diagnosis and/or treatment of a given disease or disorder; (b) Provide total quality assurance; (c) Reduce the cost of procedures. Once these objectives have been met, long term goals will also be achieved, namely the integration of nuclear medicine into national health care programmes on a par with other disciplines such as radiology, clinical pathology and biochemistry. At this point, nuclear medicine will have found its proper place among contemporary health care technologies and its future will have been secured. It is relatively easy to forecast human resource needs once the objectives of nuclear medicine are clear, provided a reliable database is available showing the breadth and depth of nuclear medicine practice, the range of nuclear medicine products and services, and the profile of the nuclear medicine workforce. It will be possible to extrapolate future needs from this database in terms of the size of the workforce, staff in each category (physicians, physicists, technologists, radiopharmacists, nurses and other support staff), and qualifica- tions and experience. It is important to note the age structure of the workforce in order to plan for replacements as a result of retirement and separation. It is then a matter of harnessing the old and new competences that will ensure the success of nuclear medicine and the personal fulfilment of the workforce. The ultimate aim of human resource development is to place the right people at the right time in the right position so as to tap the full potential of the workforce for the benefit of the organization and its staff. There is a current shift in paradigm towards individual centred human resource management. An employee is not merely allocated work and treated simply as another resource, but the self-respect and dignity of the individual are protected and respected. Knowing the complexities of human resource development, it is an almost impossible task at the regional or interregional level, although, at the country level, impact will be high and the effort cost effective. At the country level, the development of human resources for nuclear medicine involves partnerships with the government (ministries of health and education at the centre and at the regional level), professional bodies (e. At the country level this is a complex task and requires a prodigious amount of data collection, processing, analysis, interpre- tation and implementation. Depending on the exigencies of the situation, some of these functions may have to be centralized while others should be decentralized. It appears that there are no clear recruitment standards for posts in nuclear medicine. A minimum recruitment standard should be defined for each substantive post in every category of job in nuclear medicine. These standards should be binding on all hospitals, institu- tions and clinics that provide nuclear medicine services for patient care. It should be mandatory to involve a suitable member from each job family to help prepare the minimum standards, thus ensuring confidence in, and adherence to, the requirements of the recruitment process. Over and above these minimum standards, the employing authority concerned should prepare detailed job analyses for each post in nuclear medicine, including a clear and concise job description, job speci- fication and job design. They should also define standards of performance, develop models for personal competence and link these for each job. These standards and models will serve as benchmarks for comparing actual performance of individuals, a crucial step in the implementation of performance appraisal, feedback and counselling for personal development. Collection and codification of all these data on recruitment at the national level should lead to guidelines for the recruitment of a national nuclear medicine workforce that will serve as a reference for all those engaged in the practice of nuclear medicine in a particular country. The recruitment process should reflect the values of the organization and its goals. Professional expertise and personal integrity are of crucial importance in the selection process, since without the right people for the right job there is little chance of success. By measuring the actual performance of each person of the workforce with the agreed standards of performance, it will be possible to identify training needs. Training should only be conducted with the full consent of the future trainee, whose individual aptitudes and capabilities should first be considered. Training should be seen as a competence building and personal development function rather than as either a perk or a disciplinary exercise. A training programme should lead to concrete plans of action and new directions to meet the challenges of the future. It should serve the purpose of the estab- lishment as well as the needs of the employee. In this respect, constructive trainee participation in the formulation of the training programme is necessary. Basic training should be supplemented by specialized training that is dependent on the needs of the establishment and the individual. With good planning and organization, it should not be difficult to provide continuous education and training to all categories of professionals, using, where necessary, the services of existing training centres. What needs to be specified clearly is the standard of the end product of training. Personal competence models can be developed and linked to standards of performance upon the completion of training. This will help in the monitoring, evaluation and improvement of the training programme. Periodic accreditation of professionals in nuclear medicine through an acceptable evaluation process should be part of continuing education and training programmes for the nuclear medicine workforce.
Tricyclic antidepressants may reduce absorption of sublingual nitrates because dry mouth may prevent the tablet dissolving discount 20 mg levitra professional fast delivery. Cardiac glycosides – in toxic doses these can cause altered visual perception/hallucinations proven 20 mg levitra professional, mania purchase levitra professional 20 mg with mastercard, & delirium order levitra professional 20 mg with amex. The clonidine withdrawal syndrome consists of irritability, psychosis, violence, seizures (withdraw gradually). H2-blockers Cimetidine (not ranitidine) may cause impotence and reduced sexual drive Cimetidine inhibits hepatic metabolism of other drugs by competing for pathways: Increased anticoagulant effect with warfarin Increased sedation with diazepam Increased beta-blockade with propranolol Various antidotes may be used for poisons, e. In the case of physical dependence on opiates, withdrawal (abstinence) symptoms are partly caused by disinhibition of noradrenergic neurones of the locus coeruleus, and of other neurones in the periphery, including gut cholinergic neurones. Clive of India died of an overdose of laudanum at 45 Berkeley Square, London in 1774. Papaver somniferum (Oriental Poppy) has been used for centuries for its sedative and analgesic properties. Psilocybe semilancetea or Liberty Cap, Amanita muscarina (Fly Agaric), and the peyote cactus gave us psilocybin, muscinol, and mescaline respectively. Bufo alvarius (Colorado river toad) 2310 The National Institute on Drug Abuse (2007: 301-443-1124 or www. Time lapsed between first report of drug dependence and common reports of dependence also varies, e. The greatest increases in such deaths were in Ireland, Greece, Portugal, Finland, and 2312 Norway. Aetiology 2318 2319 The ‘causes’ of drug abuse and dependence are numerous and occur in different combinations and permutations in different individuals. Genes: Children of alcohol-dependent parents who are reared by non-alcohol dependent adoptive parents have 3-4 times the risk of developing dependence on alcohol than do adopted children whose biological + parents were non-alcoholic. A twin study (Agrawal ea, 2004) suggests that part of the association between early cannabis abuse and subsequent abuse of other drugs may be genetic. Also, using cannabis after discharge 2316 See also Abel Thula (2009): during 12 weeks in 2007 9. Stahler ea (2009) found that neighbourhood characteristics could have an important influence on treatment continuity and rehospitalisation in dually diagnosed patients, e. Prison: the use of injected drugs and hepatitis C are endemic in Irish prisons; tattooing may be an independent risk factor for hepatitis C in non-injecting prisoners. Changes in frontal cortical and subcortical monoaminergic systems during adolescence might promote social maturation or confer vulnerability to addictive actions of drugs. Most young people are introduced to drugs by people known to them rather than by ‘pushers’. Many of these children know of others who take illicit drugs and are offered drugs themselves. Adolescents do not often believe the warnings of doctors and the authorities about the dangers of drug abuse. Macleod ea (2004) found fairly consistent associations between cannabis use and both lower educational attainment and increased reported use of other illegal drugs. Association of drugs, including alcohol, with holidays, sex, anti-authoritarianism, etc. Personality disorders, social phobias, and other psychiatric disorders leading to a search for relief in drug taking. Antisocial personality is common in cocaine-dependent persons and childhood conduct disorder is a risk factor for cocaine abuse. Psychoactive substance use disorders significantly co-occurred with borderline and histrionic personality disorders in one study. There is some evidence that genetic polymorphism of the D2 receptor is linked to drug abuse, e. Dom ea (2005) conducted a systematic review of behavioural decision-making and neuroimaging in people with substance use disorders: acute withdrawal was associated with overactivity of orbitofrontal cortex, abstinence with underactivity of this region. There is a strong desire or compulsion to take the drug, its use is difficult to control at every stage of its use, and there is a physiological withdrawal state on stopping the drug or reducing its use. There is use of the same or a similar drug to relieve abstinence 2336 symptoms and there is evidence of tolerance : the ability of one drug to relieve the withdrawal syndrome of another drug is called cross-dependence, whilst the extension of tolerance from one drug to another is termed cross-tolerance. There is progressive neglect of alternative pleasures and interests, and persistence of drug use despite evidence of harmful consequences. Signs of drug abuse The more signs the more likely is there to be a problem Many signs also seen in non-abusing normal adolescents Qualitative behaviour changes include spending much time alone, irritable if disturbed, excessively unstable mood swings, lying, secretiveness etc Poor performance at school (e. It is chiefly young cigarette smokers who smoke it with cigarette tobacco or 2333 Angel’s trumpet (species Brugmansia, family Solanacea) is usually taken as a tea made from the trumpet-shaped flowers. This receptor is G-protein linked, inhibits neuronal adenylate cyclase, and is found mainly in basal ganglia, hippocampus and cerebellum, with lesser 2342 amounts in the cerebral cortex, and is sparsely represented in the brainstem. The Netherlands in 2010 represents a paradox: it is legal to smoke cannabis in a cafe but not if it contains tobacco! This does not mean that people in states allowing its use will not get it,(Hopkins, 2005) even though they are not shielded from federal prosecution. Frank ea (2008) found that dihydrocodeine provided more pain relief than nabilone in patients with chronic neuropathic pain, neither drug being associated with significant adverse events. Dronabinol has modest analgesic effects in multiple sclerosis; side effects include dizziness. Mild withdrawal symptoms may follow chronic high-dose (that would be toxic to the novice) intake, indicating some degree of tolerance. These symptoms commence on day one to three after stopping cannabis intake, peak during day two to six, and last from four to 14 days. Cannabis causes anxiety, panic, dry (‘cotton’) mouth, a sleepy look, red- eye, over eating, increased confidence, verbosity, and distortions of time, colour and shape. Heavy use of cannabis is associated with poor recall of word lists but this tends to normalise with abstinence. Intravenous crude cannabis extract Can cause: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, hypotension, pyrexia, arthralgia, acute renal failure, pulmonary oedema, disseminated intravascular necrosis, death 2343 Side effects include tiredness, sedation, sickness, tingling, and feeling strange. Prolonged dysphoria after stopping cannabis intake may be due to reduced dopamine activation. Proposed chronic effects include the ‘amotivational syndrome’ and a schizophreniform psychosis (some experts have interpreted both as representing chronic intoxication). Controversy exists as to whether early cannabis use leads to depression and schizophrenia. Flashbacks, which may result from release of psychoactive components from body fat, are rarely attributable to cannabis as such, but cannabis may precipitate flashbacks due to earlier abuse of powerful 2350 Decreased power and signal-to-noise ratio at stimulation frequency of 20 Hz. Cannabis, like alcohol and cocaine, is associated with reckless (and fatal – Anonymous, 2351 2005) driving or flying with effects lasting for up to 48 hours. It increases uterine contractions that can lead to precipitate labour; heavy maternal use may lead to some increased separation of the eyes, tremor, excessive startle response, and decreased visual response to photic stimulation in the newborn. There is a suggestion that exposure to cannabis during the first 2352 trimester may be associated with increased risk for childhood neuroblastoma. Medical use of cannabis, preferably by inhaler rather than by smoking, requires more research. It can be smoked (sprinkled on joints of parsley or marijuana), sniffed (snorted), eaten or injected. It can cause dizziness, ataxia, amnesia, excitement, dissociation and a paranoid-hallucinatory state. It can cause excited behaviour, depersonalisation, hallucinations, delirium, and vivid dreams. Rash, tachycardia, arrhythmias, hyperhidrosis, bruxism, trismus, and seizures have been recorded. Cannabis intoxication may include visual hallucinations associated with listening to music. Rarely, patients may deliberately damage their own tissues, causing, for example, blindness. They are possibly due to release of stored drug from fat stores, or may be brought on by cannabis use at a later time. There have been some tentative in vitro experiments that support a possible teratogenic effect: chromosomal damage has not been confirmed. Treatment of a bad trip may include observation, ‘talking the patient down ‘(reassurance and reality- orientation), and a benzodiazepine, e.
The presence of Prophylactic antibiotics are recommended for rological levitra professional 20mg for sale, hearing purchase generic levitra professional on-line, visual or dental abnormali- One meta-analysis shows that the risk of anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies increases the organ recipients requiring invasive procedures ties purchase levitra professional cheap. It occurs erythropoietin order levitra professional overnight delivery, the relative increase in plasma The combination of hepatitis B vaccination in up to 20% of renal transplant recipients can occur in solid organ transplant recipients58. In addition, how- Hepatitis C Hepatitis C is now more com- secretion of erythropoietin by native kidneys, vaginal delivery, and cesarean delivery reduces ever, anemia may occur due to bone marrow mon than hepatitis B in renal transplant transplanted kidneys or the liver. Should exposure also may have anemia related to chronic renal Pregnant transplant recipients known to have viral load, can be increased as a consequence occur, prophylactic intervention with intrave- impairment. Venesection can be considered following organ transplantation is currently 87 poietin during the pregnancy if graft function if the hematocrit rises signifcantly. As no means of pre- humans have described central nervous sys- ratio should involve close liaison between hepatolo- venting vertical transmission exists, preg- tem defects and limb abnormalities in new- gists, obstetricians and transplant physicians. These should be reviewed prior to Solid organ transplantation restores fertility 1998;31:766–73 pregnancy with a view to stopping those that to many women with end-stage organ disease 5. Calcium supple- and undoubtedly offers the best chance of a 2004;36:1999–2000 ments and alfacalcidol are safe in pregnancy successful pregnancy to women of childbear- 6. In order to make an informed deci- Successful pregnancies after human renal tions are seen in 77% of renal transplant phosphate binders are also safe in pregnancy, sion, it is essential that women of childbear- transplantation. N Engl J Med 1963;269:341–3 recipients92, due either to impaired transplant but newer agents such as lanthanum carbonate ing age are counseled regarding contraception 7. Bisphosphonates, which time to protect graft function and minimize 1978;132:340–1 patient is mild and asymptomatic, but few are used in the treatment and prevention of risks to the fetus. Pregnancy in recipi- published data describe the outcome of preg- osteoporosis, are known to cross the placenta, fed where necessary, and concurrent medical ents of solid organs – effects on mother and nancy58. Menstrual problems among Drugs considered safe in pregnancy Drugs not recommended for use in pregnancy ratory Physician, Glenfeld Hospital, Leicester, kidney transplant recipients. Reprod- Women’s Health Committee of the American Other drugs Lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer uction with women with end-stage renal dis- Society of Transplantation. Outcome of pregnancy in women with con- Transplantation 2006; 1:636 Gynecol 1991;34:100–11 and Lung Transplantation: twenty-third off- genital heart disease: a literature review. Pregnancy and renal cial adult lung and heart-lung transplantation Coll Cardiol 2007;49:2303–11 tility after renal transplantation: achievement transplantation. Fertility and contraceptive issues after utero exposure to mycophenalate mofetil; Siroliumus-associated infertility: case report sion in renal disease in pregnancy. Confdential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in Pregnancy and Lactation; a Reference Guide to plant couple resulting from in-vitro fertilisa- Systemic lupus erythematosus. Worldwide, cervical cancer remains the Stage 1a1 disease (invades the major cause of cancer death in women, espe- 3 cervical stroma to less than 3 mm cially in the developing world. Small volume stage 1b1 cervical cancer (lesions confned to the cervix more than stage 1a2 but not greater than 2cm) For women in the reproductive age group, treatment options are either radical hysterec- tomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy or radical trachelectomy followed by laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy11. However, after radical trachelec- Figure 2 Diagram showing the part of cervix Vagina tomy, the following problems may arise and where a cone biopsy is performed patients should be counseled beforehand that Figure 3 Diagram showing extent of tissue extra postoperative vigilance will be necessary: removal during radical trachelectomy for stage 1a2 1. Careful delivered prematurely due to the presence of Canada reported 3800 new cases in 200412; preoperative counseling (as in radical hyster- an incompetent cervix. On the other hand, if patients succeed a cure, so that the overall 5-year survival is The risk of lymph node metastases at this Daniel Dargent as a modifcation of the radical in conceiving, they should be warned about about 75%. This decision should not be Another issue that has recently come to the Fallopian tube Uterus taken lightly as the long-term implications of fore is the possibility of ovarian conservation such an action remain to be determined. Immunohistochemistry stud- 25% of endometrial cancer patients will have ies should be performed on the specimen to coexistent ovarian cancer (either metastatic or Vagina determine the hormone receptor status, as primary disease). Under these circumstances, progestin sensitivity or uptake is associated it is vital to discuss ovarian conservation with the patient before her surgery or conservative with good prognostic outcome. The author’s suggested treatment Figure 4 Diagramatic representation of the female anatomy, showing the uterine cavity, cervix and vagina Atypical endometrial hyperplasia is character- protocol is 160mg of medroxyprogesterone and the position of the tubes and ovaries ized by excessive proliferation of endometrial acetate (Megace) orally daily for 90 days fol- cells associated with cellular stratifcation, lowed by further hysteroscopy and endome- densely eosinophilic cytoplasm, tufting, loss of trial samplings. If there is evidence of com- is more commonly a disease of postmeno- Management of endometrial nuclear polarity, and enlarged and prominent plete response (that is absence of tumor in all 20 pausal women (usually above the age of 60 cancer in young women nuclei with increased evidence of mitosis. The etio- basis and undergoes outpatient pipelle endo- endometrial cancer in premenopausal women The majority of such cases are usually asso- logical factors are similar to those for endome- metrial sampling every 6 months indefnitely trial cancer, and young women who are obese include: ciated with good prognostic features such as except if pregnant. Whereas the ideal management of endometrial cancer at any age is total hyster- bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be Several studies have shown that complex 3. Familial (hereditary non-polyposis high as 58% following treatment with proges- of progression to frankly invasive carcinoma with or without pelvic/para-aortic lymph node colorectal cancer syndrome or the Lynch togens. The risk of concurrent syndrome); get pregnant immediately, long-term mainte- management of very early stage endometrial endometrial cancer at the time of diagnosis 5. It is axiomatic that such women contraceptive pill or the levonorgestrel intra- Thus, the recommended treatment standard In hereditary non-polyposis coli, a mismatch desiring to retain their uterus and ovaries uterine system (Mirena) may be appropriate. Epithelial ovarian tumors – derived from stages, with spread into the peritoneum or mone treatment, as discussed above, may be are usually highly non-specifc, about 75% of the surface epithelium of the ovary; omentum, they usually produce characteris- a good compromise treatment in this group of patients present with advanced stage disease tic ‘non-invasive’ implants. It is impor- and 21,650 cases in 2008; the condition was operative imaging should be carried out with 22 tant for every woman to know her body very responsible for 15,520 deaths in 2008. The ideal treatment, even if bor- Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or even ignore the so-called ‘non-specifc’ symptoms, derline ovarian tumor is suspected, is total ovarian cystectomy is all that is required. Such especially when they appear in women who abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo- procedures can be undertaken with minimally have presented without symptoms for years oophorectomy and omentectomy. However, in young women markers should lead to a high index of suspi- desiring to preserve their fertility, and when the onset, nature and extent of the symptoms, cion. Therefore, conservative management can the tumor is unilateral, it may be feasible to especially in those who have not been known be offered to women desiring to preserve their carry out conservative surgery such as uni- to complain of anything in the past. Salpingo- and approximately 90% of cases occur in oophorectomy is preferred to cystectomy even women older than 40 years, with the major- Epithelial ovarian tumors of low malignant if the disease is confned to one ovary, as this ity usually above the age of 55 years. Women potential (borderline ovarian tumors) is less likely to be associated with risk of recur- are only more likely to have ovarian cancer at 23 rence. Cystectomy is more likely to be asso- an earlier age if they are at a high risk, such These types of epithelial ovarian tumors dif- ciated with intraoperative surgical rupture, as having a family history of ovarian or breast fer from the typical cancerous ovarian tumors thus increasing the risk of recurrence. The com- because they appear not to invade the ovarian contralateral ovary looks normal, there may bined oral contraceptive pill appears to offer stroma. On the other hand, if Figure 5 Ovarian tumor and ascites causing mark- some degree of protection against the develop- epithelial ovarian tumors and are usually very it looks cystic and/or abnormal, a frozen sec- edly distended abdomen with prominent veins, evi- ment of ovarian cancer. The management of epi- Stage 1c disease (stage 1a or 1b plus one or tumor resection following surgery or response Even if there is the need to remove the con- thelial ovarian cancer in women who wish to more of the following – tumor on the surface of to chemotherapy. They are also very useful for tralateral tube and ovary, the uterus does not preserve their fertility depends on the stage of the ovary, positive peritoneal cytology or surgi- subsequent follow-up after a successful treat- necessarily need to be removed. Hormone ian cancer should undergo complete surgical above but with the addition of adjuvant che- of disease extent (involvement of the omen- replacement is recommended following bilat- staging which includes total abdominal hys- motherapy (single agent platinum or platinum tum or the para-aortic lymph nodes). Once again, in younger Over the past two decades, treatment of terectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy the endometrium and prevent menopausal women, hormone replacement is usually rec- ovarian germ cell tumors has improved sig- and omentectomy with pelvic and para-aortic symptoms and osteoporosis due to estrogen ommended for the reasons given above. In young relates positively with absence of residual dis- Following conservative surgery for border- women desiring fertility preservation and with ease following surgery (optimal cytoreductive line ovarian tumors, the patient should be Germ cell ovarian tumors stage 1 and 2 disease, unilateral salpingo- surgery), younger age of the patient, favorable closely followed up at 3-monthly intervals in oophorectomy should be considered at lapa- histological type (apart from serous or clear the frst 2 years with 6-monthly pelvic ultra- These are rare of gynecological tumors. Other sites where germ stage 2 and above, apart from ovarian dysger- scans for a total follow-up period of 10 years, be considered in younger women with stage cell tumors can be found include the testicle minoma where radiotherapy might be consid- except if she opts for a full hysterectomy and 1 disease and favorable histological type as (12%), sacrococcygeal region (40%), brain ered, combination chemotherapy consisting of removal of the remaining ovary and tube hav- detailed below. Other combina- this in women who have previously had ele- Stage 1a disease (confned to one ovary without cyst which is usually benign, the immature tion chemotherapy has also been used. Very stromal) tumors survival for women with stage 1 and 2 dis- lymph node dissection is also performed to rarely, they may also be found in children ease is greater than 90%. The symptoms are a feel- These are tumors derived from the connective used chemotherapy for advanced stage disease with invasive implants and have reported var- ing of pelvic-abdominal fullness or bloating, tissue elements of the ovary. They are rare and Stage 1b disease (involvement of both ovaries, abdominal pain, occasional irregular bleed- account for about 5–10% of all types of ovar- ied results. It is therefore important girls and women of reproductive age, and only non-invasive implants in either the perito- is again by laparotomy, peritoneal washings to have a high index of suspicion as some of about 10% occur in women above the age of neum or the omentum. Tumors derived from the ovarian omentectomy and para-aortic lymphadenec- nal and pelvic examination may reveal a pel- stroma may be associated with abnormal pro- Invasive epithelial ovarian tumors tomy. A pelvic ultrasound would show a duction of the sex steroid hormones (proges- give the woman the option of egg donation complex ovarian mass which is usually unilat- terone, estrogen, testosterone, androstenedi- Epithelial ovarian cancer is relatively uncom- for in vitro fertilization. Most integrity as well as to prevent menopausal sensitive tumor markers which are usually cause abnormal uterine bleeding or precocious women have completed their family before symptoms and osteoporosis.
Vitamin E – Enhancement of Wheat germ generic 20mg levitra professional with visa, 1mg α- No safe levitra professional 20mg, but some tocopherol vitamin A function; whole grains order 20 mg levitra professional with visa, tocopherol effects at very Fat Soluble healing of scar vegetable oils discount 20 mg levitra professional visa, equivalent high doses. Vitamin K – Regulation of blood Leafy green 80 mg No, but menadione clotting vegetables, supplementation Fat soluble cauliﬂower, with synthetic soybean oil, kelp, vitamin K, cereal grain exceeding products, fruits 500 mg, is not and yoghurt. Their roles may be generalised within the areas of providing structure in the for- mation of bones and teeth, maintenance of normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity, acid–base balance and the regulation of cellular metabolism through their activ- ity/structural associations with enzymes and hormones. Under ‘ideal’ conditions these systems must operate efﬁ- ciently, but they must also be able to respond to unexpected shortages and demands, for example ﬁghting, natural disasters, pregnancy, lactation, famine, injury and disease. Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable but energetically unfavourable reactions (usually anabolic) by coupling them to favourable ones (usually catabolic). Confusion and coma can result if blood glucose falls below 3 mM, while serious vascular damage may occur if it exceeds 8 mM for signiﬁcant periods (see Table 2. After a meal, glucose concentrations in the portal venous blood can easily reach 20 mM. Stimulation of insulin release results in the uptake of glucose by the peripheral tissues (muscle and adipose tissue). Surplus glucose is stored locally in tissues as glycogen, but mostly it is converted into fats. This level of glucose is actively defended by the liver, which removes glucose when too high, and replenishes it when too low. Both the supply and the demand for glucose may vary more than 20-fold over a 24 hour period; both can change suddenly and sometimes without warning. The liver can both uptake and secrete glucose; it is one of the few tissues in the body to permit bi-directional glucose transport (enterocytes and kidney are others). Most tissues present a major barrier to glucose entry at the plasma membrane, and glucose is only allowed to enter the cells during periods of intense metabolic activity and in response to circulating insulin. Unlike the liver, most tissues have no export pathway for glucose; their glycogen reserves are strictly for internal use. Long-term shortages are made good via gluconeogenesis from non-carbohydrate precursors. Fats affect a number of metabolic controls that suppress the oxidation of carbo- hydrates. Most aerobic tissues, such as cardiac muscle, ‘prefer’ fats; this is reinforced by insulin signalling, and in the absence of insulin most tissues are essentially impermeable to glucose. They are useful for emergencies and short-term requirements, but are not a cost-effective fuel for longer-term requirements (see Table 2. The strategy is therefore to conserve limited carbohydrate stores (for emergency use), while fuelling basal metabolic activity with fats. Fat, in adipocytes, provides the major energy store in humans, although muscle proteins are also degraded when food intake is inadequate. Fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose, but triacylglycerol droplets comprise 6% by weight of glycerol; glycerol is converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which can enter gluconeogenesis or glycolysis. Glycolysis can proceed under both anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic conditions. Through the Cori cycle, lactate produced in the skeletal muscles can be delivered to the liver and used to regenerate glucose, through gluconeogenesis. The Cori cycle refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate, produced by anaero- bic glycolysis in the muscle, moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, through gluconeogenesis; glucose can then return to supply the muscle. The ‘chain’ consists of a number of redox components, each capable of accepting and donating electrons. Substrates are oxidised (they lose an electron), and the electron passes through the redox chain, directionally from a low to a high redox potential, eventually being added to oxygen and reducing it to water. As electrons pass through the different redox components, low to higher potential, they release energy. This process is a normal physiological function of ‘brown’ adipose tissue, so called because of the high density of mitochondria in the individual adipose cells. The mitochondria in brown fat contain a protein called thermogenin (also called uncoupling protein 1). Thermogenin acts as a channel in the inner mitochondrial membrane to control the permeability of the membrane to protons. Newborn babies contain brown fat in their necks and upper backs that serves the function of nonshivering thermogenesis. The process of thermogenesis in brown fat is initiated by the release of free fatty acids from the triacylglycerol stored in the adipose cells (Figure 2. When noradrenaline is released in response to cold sensation it binds to β-adrenergic receptors on the surface of brown adipocytes, triggering the activation of adenyl cyclase. The released fatty acids bind to thermogenin, triggering an uncoupling of the proton gradient and the release of the energy of the gradient as heat. The mitochondrial electron transfer chain is localised within the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrion is said to be ‘coupled’; that is, electron transfer is coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. Both hormones cause the conversion of inactive glycogen phosphorylase b to the active glycogen phosphorylase a. Noradrenalin interacts with its β-adrenergic receptor, transmitting a signal through the receptor and activating a G-protein, which in turn activates adenyl cyclase. Fatty acids, from the lipolysis of triacyglycerol, bind to thermogenin, which is then able to transport protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, effectively uncoupling the mitochondria and releasing the energy derived from electron transfer as heat. Glycogen phosphorylase a cleaves the bond at the 1 position by substitution of a phosphoryl group. It breaks down the glucose polymer at α-1-4 linkages until only 5-linked glucoses are left on the branch. In a ﬁnal step, phosphoglucomutase converts G-1-P (glucose-1-phosphate) to G-6-P (glucose- 6-phosphate). The key regulatory enzyme in this process is the glycogen phosphorylase, which is activated by phosphorylation and inhibited by dephosphorylation. Liver (hepatic) cells will either consume the glucose-6-phosphate in glycolysis or remove the phosphate group (using the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase) and release the free glucose into the bloodstream for uptake by other cells. Muscle cells do not possess glucose-6-phosphatase and hence will not release glucose, but will rather use the glucose-6-phosphate ‘internally’ in glycolysis. Liver glycogen is a short-term glucose buffer, muscle glycogen a short-term energy supply. Hormones such as adrenaline/epinephrine and glucagon regulate glycogen phosphorylase using second messenger ampliﬁcation systems that are linked to G-proteins. It is an energetically unfavourable pathway that requires the coupling of exergonic and endergonic reactions. While most steps in gluconeogenesis are the reverse of those found in glycolysis, the three regulated and strongly exergonic reactions of glycolysis (1–3 in Figure 2. The rate of gluconeogenesis is ultimately controlled through the control of the key enzyme fructose- 1,6-bisphosphatase. However, both acetyl-CoA and citrate activate pyruvate carboxylase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and also inhibit the activity of pyruvate kinase (the corresponding negative free energy reaction in glycolysis), so promoting gluconeogenesis. Chain branches in the growing glucose polymer are made by branching enzyme (also known as amylo-α(1 : 4)-α(1 : 6) transglycosylase), which transfers the end of the chain on to an earlier part via α-1 : 6 glucosidic bonds, forming branches which further grow by addition of more α-1 : 4 glucosidic units. Its activity is regulated by phosphorylation of serine residues in the subunit proteins. The addition of glucose to glycogen depends upon the presence of a pre-existing glycogen primer; glucose monomers are arranged and added to the primer by glyco- gen synthase, a key regulatory enzyme that is subject to control by covalent phosphorylation. Glycerol is used by the liver for triacylglycerol synthesis or for gluconeogenesis (following its conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate). Fatty acids are the preferred energy source for the heart and an important energy source for skeletal muscle during prolonged exertion. During fasting the bulk of the body’s energy needs must be supplied by fat catabolism. Fatty acids must be activated in the cytoplasm in order to enter the mitochondrion (where the β-oxidation pathway occurs (Figure 2. Activation is catalysed by fatty acyl-CoA ligase (also called acyl-CoA synthetase or thiokinase). The process of fatty acid oxidation is termed β-oxidation since it occurs through the sequen- tial removal of 2-carbon units by oxidation at the β-carbon position of the fatty acyl-CoA molecule.
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Patients with the Churg- description of one of the limited ways in which Strauss syndrome generally have long-standing bronchi and bronchioles respond to injury discount levitra professional 20mg with mastercard. Manifestations of the disease appear Parenchymal Disorders (Associated With Other to be attributable to a granulomatous inﬂammatory Known Disease Entities) response that results in vascular necrosis buy levitra professional 20mg lowest price, primarily involving the lungs discount generic levitra professional canada. It is important to separate the Churg-Strauss Systemic manifestations of the illness may include syndrome from other necrotizing vasculitides purchase levitra professional uk, such upper airway involvement (sinusitis, rhinitis, nasal as Wegener granulomatosis and polyarteritis polyps); skin changes (nodules, purpura, urti- nodosa, which may require treatment with caria); arthralgias; myalgias, mononeuritis multi- cytotoxic agents. The patho- lobular distribution, centrilobular nodules (espe- physiology is unknown, but these patients may cially within the ground-glass opacity), or multiple have had a primary eosinophilic inﬁltrative disor- nodules, especially in association with bronchial der that had been clinically recognized as asthma, wall thickening. In the United States, the most common often markedly increased and appears to correlate infections are caused by Strongyloides, Ascaris, with disease activity. Eosinophils have been shown to be Clinically, there are three distinct phases: (1) a present in the lung, however, when parasites are prodromal phase that may persist for many years, not demonstrable, which suggests that immuno- consisting of asthma, often preceded by allergic logic mechanisms may be involved. The lung disease eosinophilic pneumonia, which may recur during commonly resolves with therapy directed at the a period of years; and (3) a third, life-threatening speciﬁc parasite. This reaction cyclophosphamide may reduce the rate of relapse commonly causes nocturnal cough, dyspnea, 76 Eosinophilic Lung Diseases (Alberts) wheezing, fever, weight loss, and malaise. A his- Miscellaneous: Bronchogenic carcinoma occa- tory of residence in a ﬁlarial endemic region and a sionally is associated with lung and peripheral ﬁnding of peripheral eosinophilia 3,000/mm3 eosinophilia. This disorder affects can result in an acceleration of the infection with multiple organ systems, primarily as the result of possible fatal dissemination. They include bronchiolitis oblit- lished: (1) peripheral eosinophilia ( 1,500 cells erans organizing pneumonia, ulcerative colitis, per microliter) for 6 months; (2) involvement of mycobacterial infection, Sjögren syndrome, and various organ systems with evidence of end organ postradiation ﬁbrosis. The major cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiac dis- Simple Pulmonary Eosinophilia (Loefﬂer pneumo- ease where endocardial ﬁbrosis; restrictive car- nia): Simple pulmonary eosinophilia was origi- diomyopathy; valvular damage (supportive nally described by Loefﬂer in 1932. This disorder structures around the valves, especially the mitral is characterized by migratory pulmonary inﬁl- valve, are prone to ﬁbrosis); and mural thrombus trates accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. The chest radiograph may show pulmo- the chest radiographic pattern may be almost nary edema and pleural effusions associated with diagnostic, with transitory and migratory ill- cardiac dysfunction but may also reveal intersti- deﬁned peripheral, nonsegmental, and relatively tial inﬁltrates presumably due to perivascular homogeneous densities. In the original Other drugs, such as busulfan, interferon alfa, description of this disorder, most of the patients and hydroxyurea, may be used in steroid-unre- likely had a parasitic infection or a drug reaction. Advances in molecular diag- Currently, it is estimated that up to one-third of nostics have enabled the identiﬁcation of subtypes cases do not have a clinically identiﬁable cause. Additionally, studies have monary eosinophilia, however, should be viewed reported success in treatment with the use of as a sign of possible underlying disease. The fol- disease usually affects middle-aged atopic women, lowing diagnostic criteria have been suggested: but it has been reported in both sexes and all ages. Semin Respir The appearance of the cell may be part of the Crit Care Med 2006; 27:142–147 body’s attempt to dampen or contain the effects of Short recent review of this entity. In an Respir Dis 1989; 139:249–252 attempt to categorize these disorders, we may have Original descriptions of the“newest” idiopathic eosinophilic either appropriately or artiﬁcially connected them pneumonia. Respiration 1996; 63:129–132 In a report of a nonasthmatic patient with bronchogenic The Eosinophil granulomatosis, the authors discuss different proposed pathogenetic mechanisms. Clin Radiol 2000; 55:296–300 This review concentrates on the cell rather than the clinical Discussion of the radiographic ﬁndings in this rarely syndromes. Thorax 1952; 7:1–35 Review of eosinophilia and pulmonary eosinophilia associ- First attempt to categorize a group of disorders that shared ated with parasites. It was • Understand the epidemiology of asthma and the con- tributions of genetic predisposition and environmental updated as the “Expert Panel Report 3” in 2007. Key words: asthma; atopy; diagnosis; epidemiology; patho- These symptoms are usually associated with physiology; treatment widespread but variable airﬂow limitation that is at least partially reversible either spontane- ously or with treatment. This interaction causes the following known in the latter part of the 19th century and important pathophysiologic changes in asthma was even reported in Sir William Osler’s Textbook patients: airway smooth-muscle contraction, of Medicine during that time period, this important hypertrophy and hyperplasia, microvascular leak- distinctive aspect of asthma was put aside for most age, activation of airway neurons, stimulation of of the 20th century. These inflammatory cells, including tinct feature allows for a more precise deﬁnition of histamine, platelet-activating factor, and a number this disease. It is believed that eosinophil-derived histopathologic findings can be found in the basic proteins, together with partial reductive airways of patients with asthma. Regeneration ﬁrst appears as Histopathologic Findings simple or stratiﬁed squamous epithelium before differentiation and maturation to new ciliated and Inﬁltration of the airways by inﬂammatory mucus (goblet) cells. The presence of lymphocytes and macrophages, appear to direct of mucus is associated with hyperplasia and meta- the movement of cells to the site of airway inﬂam- plasia of goblet cells; it may cause lung hyperinﬂa- mation. The intense mucosal thickening in asthma Mast cells, usually as a result of IgE-mediated contributes to the airway wall thickness and, there- stimulation, also release preformed mediators, fore, airway wall narrowing. The smooth Neurogenic Inﬂuences: There is growing evi- muscle of asthmatic patients does not behave dence that the neural control of the airways is abnormally after isolation; there is no correlation abnormal in patients with asthma and that neuro- between airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo and genic mechanisms may augment or modulate the increased airway muscle sensitivity measures in inﬂammatory response. New evidence suggests that the smooth- system regulates many aspects of airway function, muscle cell may secrete cytokines and chemokines such as airway tone, airway secretions, blood ﬂow, and express cellular adhesion molecules. A primary defect in autonomic thought of only as a passive effector cell of asthma, control, the -adrenergic receptor theory, has been responsible for bronchomotor tone, may also con- postulated for asthma. This immu- that autonomic dysfunction is a secondary defect nomodulatory function of the smooth muscle is caused by inﬂammation or by the effects of treat- similar to that found in epithelial cells. For instance, inﬂammatory mediators can evidence that smooth-muscle cells in the airways modulate the release of neurotransmitters from are capable of producing growth factors that can airway nerves such as irritant receptors and C-ﬁber themselves promote proliferation in an autocrine endings. There is a microvascular become exposed, causing a release of potent neu- component to airway remodeling in asthma, with ropeptides such as substance P, neurokinin A, and evidence of angiogenesis in biopsy material and calcitonin gene-related protein. The structural changes that occur in the air- This neurogenic inﬂammation of the airways, ways of asthmatic patients are likely to be detri- triggered by sensitized sensory nerve endings, has mental and contribute to ﬁxed airway narrowing. It is not clear whether Acute bronchoconstriction bronchial hyperreactivity is acquired or is present Mucus plugging of airways at birth and genetically determined to appear with Bronchial wall edema the appropriate stimulus. Uncoupling of elastic recoil forces These events include viral respiratory infections, an IgE-mediated allergic reaction, and the inhalation of noxious agents such as ozone or sulfur dioxide. Studies in which the authors used a rowing, is the same for these provocative agents, wedged bronchoscope technique have shown that the mechanisms that cause the airways to constrict peripheral resistance can be 10-fold greater than vary. In many asthmatic or hypoosmolar solutions act indirectly by releas- patients, particularly children and younger adults ing pharmacologically active substances from with milder disease, airﬂow obstruction is com- mediator-secreting cells such as mast cells. In most elderly asthmatic dioxide and bradykinin act by directly stimulating patients and those of any age group with more airway sensory nerve endings. Atopy may be deﬁned as the largely genetic Airway Obstruction: Airway obstruction is susceptibility for developing IgE directed to epit- another cardinal feature of asthma. The causes opes expressed on common environmental aller- of airﬂow limitation in patients with asthma are gens such as dust mites, animal proteins, pollens, listed in Table 1. This results in an airways (eg, nose and sinuses) and lower airways increase in lung elastic recoil forces, which act on are both important in the pathogenesis of asthma. This The term extrinsic asthma has been used to describe occurs because of the interdependence of lung asthma that is triggered by exposure to inhaled volume and airway caliber because parenchymal aeroallergens. Cellular responses may occur with attachments cause greater tethering of the airways the first exposure to a specific antigen in such at greater lung volumes. As the antigen penetrates shown to be a predictor of skin test sensitivity and beneath the mucosa, it is likely exposed to granu- asthma at age 6 years. The prevalence of atopy locytes and tissue macrophages and eventually increases throughout childhood and adolescence enters the lymphatic system after enzymatic and peaks in the second decade of life. IgE inﬁltrates the airways and becomes ﬁxed atopic asthmatic patients and have a later onset of to mast cells, basophils, and dendritic cells through asthma. This step sets intrinsic asthma have been compared with a group the stage for the acute allergic response with the of patients with extrinsic asthma with a compa- inhalation of more antigens. This may be in Genes determining the speciﬁcity of the immune large part caused by the marked heterogeneity of response also may be important to the pathogen- the asthma phenotype. Genes located on the human leuko- contributing factors such as atopy, viruses, aspirin cyte antigen complex may govern the response to sensitivity, exercise, and occupational exposure aeroallergens in some individuals. It should be noted that Population studies that have conducted despite many encouraging reports, most studies genome-wide screens have contributed to our on the genetics of asthma that show an association understanding of the inheritance of asthma. These genome screens also have found numerous loci that contain Childhood asthma is more prevalent in boys, potential candidate genes that can regulate the but this prevalence is reversed in puberty and immune response of asthma. Black race/ethnicity glucocorticoid receptor function, and the inﬂam- is associated with a greater risk of asthma death, matory mediator response have been found. The greater incidence of asthma that has been tibility, responses to environmental stimuli, and observed with urbanization suggests that environ- responses to treatment. In fact, subjects of different races the -receptor gene, variants of the gene were acquire the risk of the population to which they evaluated to see whether they could be responsible move. One mutation (the substitution of glycine for arginine at position 16) Environmental Factors was associated with more severe asthma and espe- cially with more severe nocturnal symptoms.Share this