By X. Delazar. Alabama A&M University.
Support groups and self-paced therapies can also be part of successful eating disorder treatment order 100mg zoloft with visa. Support groups may contain a mental health professional generic 25mg zoloft with amex, but are often run by peers buy genuine zoloft on line. Some groups are part of a structured treatment program cheap zoloft, while others are more supportive in nature. Support groups can help a person get through treatment by meeting others who personally understand eating issues. Many people do not need medications for eating disorders during treatment, but eating disorder medications are needed in some cases. Patients also need to be aware that all eating disorder medications come with side effects and the risks of the drug needs to be evaluated against the potential benefit. These medications are primarily prescribed to stabilize the patient both mentally and physically. Without the proper electrolyte balance, there can be emergency eating disorder health problems and complications involving the heart and brain. Only one psychiatric medication has been FDA approved to treat eating disorders: fluoxetine (Prozac ) is approved for the treatment of bulimia. However, other psychiatric medications may be used in treatment for any eating disorder. Because of depression, anxiety, impulse and obsessive disorders commonly seen in patients with anorexia or bulimia, the patient may receive antidepressants or mood stabilizers. Common psychiatric eating disorder medications include the following types:Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI): these antidepressants have the strongest evidence as eating disorder medications with the fewest side effects. In addition to fluoxetine, examples of SSRIs include sertraline ( Zoloft ) and fluvoxamine ( Luvox ). Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): These older antidepressants have some evidence as being effective in eating disorders treatment; however, they have more side effects than SSRIs. Other antidepressants: Other antidepressants are also used in the treatment process. Examples are bupropion ( Wellbutrin ) and trazodone ( Desyrel )Mood stabilizers: There is some evidence for using mood stabilizers to treat eating disorder patients. Because mood stabilizers can have adverse effects such as weight loss, mood stabilizers are not a first choice for eating disorder medications. Examples of mood stabilizers are: topiramate ( Topiramate ) and lithium. Even if medications for eating disorders are not indicated, the patient may have other medical conditions that need to be managed with medication. Psychiatric disorders like depression, bipolar, anxiety, substance abuse, ocd and ADHD are extremely common in patients with an eating disorder. Medications for eating disorders may also be prescribed to manage the physical damage done by the eating disorder. Examples of other medications for eating disorders and co-existing conditions include:Orlistat (Xenical): an anti-obesity drugEphedrine and caffeine: stimulants; energizing drugs Methylphenidate: typically used when attention deficit hyperactivity disorder accompanies the eating disorderEating disorder recovery can seem like an impossible goal to some, but with professional help, eating disorders can be successfully treated. Successfully recovering from an eating disorder requires various types of treatment depending on individual circumstances. Therapy, medication, support groups are all part of a treatment program. Some mental health professionals, and some patients recovering from eating disorders, feel recovery is a lifelong process. Recovery from eating disorders is seen like recovery from addictions: once an addict, always an addict. Someone with binge eating disorder may be considered "addicted to food. Common patterns between eating disorders and addiction include: Feeling a loss of control over substance (food)Obsession with substanceUse of substance to deal with stress and negative feelingsContinuing behavior in spite of harmful consequencesIt is also noted that those with eating disorders are more likely to have substance abuse issues, so recovering from eating disorders with an addiction model may serve to treat both. The addiction model is used by organizations like Overeaters Anonymous and Anorexics Anonymous. Terminology like, "sobriety in our eating practices," is used. These eating disorder recovery groups encourage lifelong vigilance and participation in support groups; some patients find them a useful part of eating disorder recovery. On the other hand, some professionals find the addiction model inappropriate for recovering from eating disorders. Additionally, those with eating disorders tend to already have problems with this right-or-wrong thought pattern, which often perpetuates eating disorder behavior. A person cannot abstain from food as they would an addicted substance. The idea of "abstaining" may encourage starvation, bingeing or purging behavior. Addiction criteria such as physical tolerance, dependence and withdrawal are not observable in eating disorders. Eating disorder treatment goals are more accurately described as a normalization of eating behaviors and a restoration of natural weight rather than abstaining from a specific substance. Additionally, there is no evidence to indicate that eating disorder recovery based on the addiction model is effective. While eating disorders are often complex and may take years to successfully treat, full eating disorder recovery is entirely possible. Eating disorder support groups are commonly used both during treatment and in the recovery of eating disorders. Eating disorder support groups provide sufferers a way to meet others going through the same or similar struggles. Sometimes feeling like, "no one understands them," seeing others with eating disorders can make a patient feel more comfortable to share her/his feelings knowing that those around them will not judge and will offer eating disorder support. Eating disorder support groups are typically tied to an organization, an eating disorder treatment center or a 12-step model. Common support groups are:Affiliated with the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA)Affiliated with the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD)Based on 12-step programs like: Eating Disorders Anonymous, Anorexics and Bulimics Anonymous, and Overeaters AnonymousMany organizations both online and through facilities are members of NEDA. NEDA, a nonprofit group, "supports individuals and families affected by eating disorders, and serves as a catalyst for prevention, cures and access to quality care. A wide variety of eating disorder support and treatment options for eating disorders are available. ANAD provides eating disorder support through a helpline, its website, and a comprehensive list of eating disorder treatment providers and eating disorder support groups. ANAD also assists in setting up additional support groups, both for eating disorder patients and for families of those with an eating disorder, worldwide. Several 12-step eating disorders support groups are available, such as Eating Disorders Anonymous, Anorexics and Bulimics Anonymous, and Overeaters Anonymous. These groups are based on a 12-step model of recovery similar to Alcoholics Anonymous. Eating disorder recovery is considered a lifelong process and these eating disorder support groups use terminology like, "sobriety in our eating practices. These 12-step eating disorder support groups are:Not therapy or a substitute for therapyNot affiliated with religions or other groupsGroups can be attended any time and the only group requirement is a desire to stop unhealthy eating practices or recover from an eating disorder. Eating disorder support can be found online and in person. Eating disorder support groups can be found through:Eating disorder statistics show eating disorders can affect anyone: men or women, young or old, rich or poor. Statistics on eating disorders clearly indicate these illnesses do not discriminate. Moreover, according to eating disorder stats, with a prevalence of over 10 million women in the United States suffering from an eating disorder, this is a widespread mental illness. One eating disorder statistic shows 80% of women are dissatisfied with their appearance. Another statistic on eating disorders indicates 55% of the adult population of the United States is dieting at any given time. While women experience eating disorders considerably more often than men, eating disorder stats show more and more men are being diagnosed with anorexia, bulimia and binge eating disorder. Of those, 20%-25% progress to partial or full-syndrome eating disorders. Eating disorders are seen in equal amounts across racesEating disorder statistics show women are much more likely than men to develop an eating disorder. These numbers reflect the lifetime likelihood of an eating disorder for women vs.
Each partner was interviewed separately purchase on line zoloft; the length of each of the interviews was approximately 2 hours order genuine zoloft. Couples were recruited through business zoloft 25mg lowest price, professional 100mg zoloft with mastercard, and trade union organizations, as well as through churches, synagogues, and a variety of other community organizations. Most couples resided in the northeast part of the country. The sample was chosen purposively to fit with the goal of developing an understanding of a diverse and older group of heterosexual and same-gender couples in lasting relationships. Couples were recruited who met the following criteria:1. They were married or in a committed same-gender relationship for at least 15 years. They were diverse in race/ethnicity, education, religious background, and sexual orientation. Of the 216 partners who were interviewed, 76% were white and 24% were people of color (African-Americans and Mexican-Americans). The religious background of the couples was as follows: 46%were Protestant; 34% were Catholic; and 20% were Jewish. Fifty-six percent were college graduates and 44% were non-college graduates. Sixty-seven percent of couples were heterosexual and 33% in same-gender relationships. Seventy-seven percent of the couples had children; 23% did not have children. By total gross family income, 7% of couples earned less than $25,000; 25% between $25,000 and $49,999; 29% between $50,000 and $74,999; and 39% had gross incomes of $75,000 or more. Each interview was tape-recorded and transcribed to facilitate coding and prepare the data for both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Interview passages were coded for relational themes, which were then developed into categories (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Initially, a research team (two women, two men) coded eight transcriptions blindly and individually. Detailed notes were kept and categories were generated. A relationship coding sheet was developed and used in subsequent coding of eight additional interviews. As new categories arose, previous interviews were recoded in keeping with the constant comparative process. Having both genders involved in that process helped control for gender bias and contributed to the development of a shared conceptual analysis. A scoring system was developed to identify themes that evolved from each section of the interviews. There were over 90 categories in 24 topic areas for every participant. Once the Relationship Coding Sheet was developed, each interview was coded and scored independently by two raters (one male, one female), who noted themes and categories as they emerged from the transcripts. One of the authors coded all 216 interviews to ensure continuity in the operational definitions of variables and consistency of judgments from case to case. The agreement between raters, determined by dividing the number of identical judgments by the total number of codes, was 87%. When discrepancies occurred the raters met to discuss their differences and to re-examine the original transcripts until a consensus was reached on how a particular item was to be scored. HyperResearch software (Hesse-Biber, Dupuis, & Kinder, 1992) enabled the researchers to perform a thorough content analysis of interview transcripts (totalling over 8,000 double-spaced pages) and identify, catalogue, and organize specific interview passages on which categorical codes were based. In the second or current phase of the study, we re-examined the codes so as to prepare the data for quantitative analysis. Many variables were re-coded into dichotomous categories. For example, psychological intimacy was originally coded into three categories (positive, mixed, and negative). Because we were interested in understanding factors that contributed to psychological intimacy during recent years, the positive category was retained and compared with a recoded mixed/negative category. Vignettes from the transcripts are used in the following pages to illustrate the meaning of psychological intimacy to participants during recent years. The coded data from the scoring sheets yielded frequencies that were analyzed using SPSS software. The chi-square statistic seemed appropriate, since certain conditions were met. First, it has been very difficult to ensure randomness of samples in social and behavioral research, especially in studies that focus on new territory. This nonprobability sample was selected deliberately to include older couples who have been understudied in previous research--namely, heterosexual and same-gender relationships that had lasted an average of 30 years. The goal was to identify factors that contributed to satisfaction from the perspectives of individual partners rather than to test hypotheses. Second, compared to other tests of statistical significance, chi-square has fewer requirements for population characteristics. Third, the expected frequency of five observations in most table cells was met. To assess the strength of the associations between psychological intimacy and the independent variables, a correlation analysis was conducted. Because of the dichotomous nature of the variables, a phi coefficient was computed for the dependent variable and each independent variable. Variables that had been related significantly to psychological intimacy in the chi-square analysis and identified in previous studies as having importance to understanding psychological intimacy were selected for building a theoretical model. Based on the phi coefficients, communication was not included in the model (see next section). Two models were tested using logistic regression: one model included the sexual orientation of couples (heterosexual, lesbian, and gay males), the other substituted gender (male and female) for the sexual orientation of couples. Logistic regression was a useful tool in this exploratory research, where the goal was to develop theory rather than test it (Menard, 1995). TOWARD A DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INTIMACY The dependent variable was psychological intimacy. Participants talked of experiencing psychological intimacy when they were able to share their inner thoughts and feelings they felt to be accepted, if not understood, by the partner. Such experiences were associated with feelings of mutual connection between partners. When participants talked of being psychologically intimate with their partners, a sense of peace and contentment permeated their remarks. Coding this variable involved an assessment of responses to questions that asked each partner to talk about their relationships. These questions included a range of topics such as what the partner meant to the participant, how their relationships may have been different from other relationships, how participants felt about being open with their partners, what words best described the meaning of the partner to a participant, etc. Of particular importance were questions that elicited responses about the quality of communication such as, "How would you describe the communication between you? Although positive communication could be present without having a sense that the relationship was psychologically intimate, at least in a theoretical sense, the two factors were correlated substantially (phi =. Therefore, we decided not to include communication as an independent variable in the regression analysis. Psychologically intimate communication captures what we are referring to as "psychological intimacy. I can say stuff to her that I would never say to anyone else. The partner spoke of how their psychological intimacy had evolved:Although we like a lot of the same things, our interests are different... I think we both each really like the other one a lot...Share this