By L. Josh. San Francisco Law School.
Civil matters involving citizens of diferent states may be heard entirely in the federal system buy kamagra gold with paypal, as well as matters that involve two or more state governments discount kamagra gold 100mg amex, or cases that involve disputes with federal agencies purchase kamagra gold now. Additionally order kamagra gold with mastercard, federal courts may hear cases alleged to involve a “federal question,” usually an allegation that a right guaranteed by the U. Although the federal courts can remand cases that are brought into their system back to state courts for defnitive action, cases usually remain in federal court. Ofentimes the fnal disposition of a state criminal case is decided by the actions of a federal court relative to whether or not the accused received a fair trial in accordance with the U. Prior to the wide- spread use of electronic documents, each appellate jurisdiction or each state judiciary would publish printed volumes containing the verbatim written decisions handed down. Over the years, the number of individ- ual volumes was reduced as courts and even states banded together with commercial publishing frms to complete this important task. Today, most appellate decisions are posted on the various courts’ own websites on the day of decision. However, the decisions are also “published” electronically in various media for distribution to law libraries, attorneys, and commer- cial publishers. An ability to interpret the shorthand will not only allow an individual access to the decision, but also impart knowledge as to which 384 Forensic dentistry court decided the case and, in some cases, whether or not further appeal is likely. Te most important piece of information is the Reporter—the title of the volume in which the case can be found. Tese are commonly abbreviated; for example, the Southern Reporter, Tird Edition, is written as So. Federal appellate cases are found in the Federal Reporter, abbreviated as F, with F. Supreme Court (one published by the court itself and the other by a commercial publisher). Listed before the volume or reporter listing is a number representing the exact volume, and listed afer it is a number that is the page in the volume on which the opin- ion begins. Occasionally a second number follows (afer a comma) which points the reader to the exact page upon which the legal point in ques- tion is discussed; for example, 509 U. Supreme Court case) alerts the reader to search for the material on page 585 rather than reading from the beginning (page 579). Next, within parentheses are the date of the decision, and if the case is from an intermediate-level appellate court, the name of that court will be noted. Te advent of electronic databases and reporters such as WestLaw, Lexis-Nexis, and FindLaw coupled with the Internet may allow one to access a decision with as little information as one of the party names and the date or court. Unlike other (fact) witnesses, an expert witness is allowed to testify or pres- ent his or her opinion. An expert may conduct tests or other activities that assist him or her in reaching that opinion. However, the expert’s testimony and opinion must be grounded in accepted theory and practice. Although each state and the federal system have individual rules that dictate how expert testimony can be presented and used, most have a similar basis. United States in the federal district court for the District of Columbia and involved a precur- sor to what is popularly referred to as the lie detector. Te Jurisprudence and legal issues 385 use of this test—general acceptance—spread throughout the country with the practical efect that each judge would decide, ofen based on the state- ments of the expert himself or herself (or those from the opposing side), who and what could or could not be heard. But without published guidelines as a basis, the decision to hear or not hear an expert rested more in the mind of the judge than in the veracity of the science. Over the years, rising dissatisfac- tion with this standard culminated in the 1993 case Daubert v. Supreme Court decision established a four-part test for expert testimony: (1) that the theory is testable (has it been tested? Tis case enunciated the guidelines that formally establish the trial judge as the “gatekeeper” to determine the admissibility of scientifc evidence. Over the next several years two other cases refned the test for acceptance of an expert’s testimony. Joiner, established the principle that absent manifest error, the decision of the trial judge in his role as gatekeeper to admit or not admit expert scientifc testimony would not be disturbed on appeal. Tere are other branches of civil law encompassing contracts, prop- erty, wills and successions, trusts, divorce, and custody. However, occasionally an intentional tort, such as an assault or battery, can also become a criminal matter. In addition to intentional torts, there are also negligent torts and strict liability torts. Unlike the criminal justice system, where charges are brought based on 386 Forensic dentistry violations of the penal code, in the civil justice system, tort claims are made on the basis of injury or harm. Te remedy for these damages is monetary, unlike the criminal justice system, where life or liberty is at stake. Recoverable damages include loss of earnings, reasonable medical expenses, pain and sufering, and in some cases punitive damages. However, as health care professionals, dentists are more likely to become involved in two types of civil litigation: standard of care (malpractice) and personal injury. Dentists may become involved in these types of litigation in many ways—ofen as a practicing dentist against whom malpractice is alleged or as an expert witness testifying on behalf of the plaintif or the defendant dentist. A dentist may also be called to testify as a subsequent treating dentist (one who cared for the patient afer the alleged malpractice occurred) or even as a dentist who cared for the patient prior to the incident in question. In these situations the dentist plays a role similar to an expert, from whom opinion testimony may be sought. A legal answer to the summons or claim must be fled with the court in a timely fashion or a default judgment may be issued in favor of the complainant. Terefore, a dentist should immediately notify his or her insurance carrier whenever a claim or summons is received. Typically, the summons will be answered in writing and the response will trigger one of three actions by opposing counsel: (1) dismissal of the suit, (2) settlement of the suit, or (3) initiation of the discovery process. However, if the suit is not dismissed or settled, the evidence gathering stage of the suit begins, and this process is called discovery. Plaintif experts ofen become involved prior to fling suit, in order to determine whether a claim should be fled. However, defense experts usually do not become involved until afer a case is fled and discovery begins. Te discovery pro- cess allows evidence relevant to the suit to be gathered by both parties. Tis process is controlled by the court and is meant to eliminate surprises in court. By sharing information with both parties, settlement of the suit is encouraged before trial. Te discovery of evidence takes place by means of subpoenas, interrogatories, and depositions. An expert witness must prepare for deposition and related matters with the same degree of attention to detail as if preparing for courtroom testimony. Jurisprudence and legal issues 387 Interrogatories are a formal set of written questions that are asked of one party by the other. Tis clarifes matters of evidence and helps to determine what will be presented at trial. Tere are two types of depositions for obtaining information: discovery depositions and evidentiary depositions. A discovery deposition is intended to “discover” evidence that may be used at trial. An evidentiary deposition, on the other hand, is meant to gather evidence that will be used as testimony at trial. It is ofen done if a witness is unavailable for appearance at trial and is ofen videotaped for presentation to the jury. A subpoena is a written command issued by a court of proper jurisdic- tion that compels a person to appear at a certain time and place. In addition, there are also subpoenas that compel someone to bring certain items with him or her when he or she appears to answer a subpoena. Te items to be produced must be specifed in the subpoena, and they must also be in the possession of the individual receiving the subpoena duces tecum.
Metabolism usually involves more than one route and results in the forma- tion of a sucession of metabolites (Figure 2 cheap kamagra gold 100mg free shipping. Each of these metabolites may have a different or similar activity to the parent drug (see Section 9 buy discount kamagra gold line. Consequently discount kamagra gold 100 mg on line, the activities of all the metabolities of a drug must be considered in the development of a potential drug cheap 100 mg kamagra gold with amex. Metabolities are frequently more water soluble than their parent drug and because of this are usually excreted in the urine. A slow elimination process can result in a build-up of the drug concentration in the body. This may benefit the patient in that the dose required to maintain the therapeutic effect can be reduced, which in turn reduces the chances of unwanted side effects. Conversely, the rapid elimination of a drug means that the patient has to receive either increased doses, with a greater risk of toxic side effects, or more frequent doses, which carries more risk of under- or over-dosing. The main excretion route for drugs and their metabolites is through the kidney in solution in the urine. However, a significant number of drugs and their metabolic products are also excreted via the bowel in the faeces. However, some of the species lost by these processes are reabsorbed by a recycling process known as tubular reabsorption. Tubular reabsorption is a process normally employed in returning compounds such as water, amino acids, salts and glucose that are important to the well-being of the body from the urine to the circulatory system, but it will also return drug molecules. The reabsorp- tion of acidic and basic drugs is reduced if the pH favours salt formation as charged molecules are not readily transported across membranes (see Appendi- ces 3 and 5). Elimination occurs in the liver by biliary clearance, very large molecules being metabolized to smaller compounds before being excreted. However, a fraction of some of the excreted drugs is reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. This reabsorption can be reduced by the use of suitable substances in the dosage form, for example, the ion exchange resin cholestyramine is used to reduce cholesterol levels by preventing its reabsorption. Bioavailability is not constant but varies with the body’s physio- logical condition. It is now known that a drug is most effective when its shape and electron distribution, that is, its stereoelectronic structure, is complementary to the steroelectronic structure of the active site or receptor. The role of the medicinal chemist is to design and synthesize a drug structure that has the maximum beneficial effects with a minimum of toxic side effects. The stereo- chemistry of the drug is particularly important, as stereoisomers often have different biological effects, which range from inactive to highly toxic (see Table 2. At the begining of the 19th century it was largely carried out by individuals but it now requires teamwork, the members of the team being specialists in various fields, such as medicine, biochemistry, chemistry, computerized molecular modelling, pharma- ceutics, pharmacology, microbiology, toxicology, physiology and pathology. It also introduces the stereochemical and water solubility factors that should be taken into account when selecting a structure for a lead compound. These objectives will normally require a detailed assessment of the pathology of the disease and in some cases basic biochemical research will be necessary before initiating a drug design investigation (Figure 3. The information obtained is used by the team to decide what intervention would be most likely to bring about the desired result. Once the point of intervention has been selected, the team has to propose a structure for a lead compound that could possibly bring about the required change. This frequently requires an extensive literature and database search to identify compounds found in the organism (endogenous compounds) and compounds that are not found in the organism (exogenous compounds) that have some biological effect at the intervention site. Molecular modelling techniques (see Chapter 5) are sometimes used to help the team reach a decision. In many cases, a number of structures are found to be suitable, but the expense of producing drugs dictates that the team has to choose only one or two of these compounds to either act as the lead or to be the inspiration for the lead compound. Assessment of the biochemical and biological processes of the disease and/or its cause. This uses a simultaneous multiple synthesis technique to produce large numbers of potential leads. These potential leads are subjected to rapid high throughput biological screening to identify the most active lead compounds. Once the structure of the proposed lead has been agreed, it becomes the responsibility of the medicinal chemist to devise a synthetic route and prepare a sample of this compound for testing. Once synthesized, the compound undergoes initial pharmacological and toxicological testing. The results of these tests enable the team to decide whether it is profitable to continue development by preparing analogues (Figure 3. The usual scenario is to prepare a series of analogues, measure their activity and correlate the results to determine the structure with optimum activity. The selection of a lead compound and the development of a synthetic path- way for its preparation (see Chapters 10 and 11) is not the only consideration at the start of an investigation. Researchers must also devise suitable in vivo and in vitro tests to assess the activity and toxicity of the compounds produced. There is no point in carrying out an expensive synthetic procedure if at the end of the day it is impossible to test the product. Consequently, the overall shape of the structure of a molecule is an important consideration when designing an analogue. Some structural features impose a considerable degree of rigidity on a structure, whilst others make the structure more flexible. Other structures give rise to stereoisomers, which can exhibit different potencies, types of activity and unwanted side effects (see Table 2. This means that it is necessary to pharma- cologically evaluate individual stereoisomers and racemates. Consequently, one must take into account all these stereochemical features when proposing struc- tures for potential leads and analogues. However, the extent to which one can exploit these structural features will depend on our knowledge of the structure and biochemistry of the target biological system. The former includes esters and amides as well as aliphatic conjugated systems, aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems. The binding of these rigid structures to a target site can give infor- mation about the shape of that site as well as the nature of the interaction between the site and the ligand. Furthermore, the fact that the structure is rigid means it may be replaced by alternative rigid structures of a similar size and shape to form analogues, which may have different binding characteris- tics and possibly as a result a different activity or potency (see sections 2. Archer also concluded that a ligand appeared to assume different conformations when it bound to the different sub-types of a receptor. The main methods of introducing conformational restrictions are by using either bulky substituents, unsaturated structures or ring systems. In all cases, the structures used must be chosen with care, because there will always be the possibility that steric hindrance will prevent the binding of the analogue to the target. However, if sufficient information is available, molecular modelling (see section 5. Since these stereoisomers have different shapes, biologically active stereoisomers will often exhibit differences in their potencies and/or activities (Table 2. These pharmacological variations are particularly likely when a chiral centre is located in a critical position in the structure of the molecule. The consequence of these differences is that it is now necessary to make and test separately all the individual stereoisomers of a drug. Bonds marked * can exhibit free rotation and form numerous conformers As well as an effect on the activity, different stereoisomers will also exhibit differences in other physiochemical properties, such as absorption, metabolism and elimination. For example, (À)norgestrel is absorbed at twice the rate of (þ)norgestrel through buccal and vaginal membranes. The plasma half life of S-indacrinone is 2–5 hours whilst the value for the R isomer is 10–12 hours. An appropriate degree of water solubility will often improve drug distribution within the circulatory system as well as drug action. In living matter, water acts as an inert solvent, a dispersing medium for colloidal solutions and as a nucleophilic reagent in numerous biological reactions. Furthermore, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions in water influence the conformations of biological macromolecules, which in turn affects their biological behaviour.
This chapter illustrates how progression from single to multiorgan failure remains the greatest challenge facing intensive care purchase kamagra gold without prescription. Clinical scenario Brian Geller kamagra gold 100mg on-line, a 62-year-old gentleman buy kamagra gold 100mg without prescription, was originally admitted to hospital with severe abdominal pain from ruptured gastric and duodenal ulcers discount kamagra gold 100 mg line. He is intubated, has a urinary catheter in situ, and an abdominal wound with one drain. This chapter concentrates on pathophysiology and medical interventions and treatments. As much nursing time is devoted to assisting doctors (monitoring, giving prescribed treatments), nurses need to understand pathology and treatments. A 1992 consensus conference modified terminology to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Bernard et al. Alveoli being inherently unstable and prone to atelectasis, surfactant lack causes high intra-alveolar pressures and barotrauma, accelerating alveolar collapse and pulmonary oedema formation. Terminology again varies, and in practice these two stages are part of a continuum rather than distinct entities; but descriptions are clinically useful to understand disease progression. The early or exudative stage, which begins as endothelial injury causes progressive pulmonary capillary permeability, results in ■ interstitial and alveolar oedema (DiRusso et al. Proliferative/fibrotic stages Early insults to lung tissue cause progression to diffuse problems. Treatment Preventing further ventilator-induced injury and system support are the main-stays of treatment. Conventionally, treatment aimed to normalise blood gases, but the excessive peak airway pressures needed to achieve this accelerate alveolar damage (barotrauma, volotrauma). Current treatment has moved from short-term aims of normalising blood gases to longer-term aims of limiting damage and recruiting alveoli (Artigas et al. Fluid management necessitates balancing adequate perfusion without aggravating pulmonary oedema. Prolonged stays can enable close rapport between families and staff, but can become stressful for everyone; both bedside nurses and nurse managers need to recognise incipient distress. Families may seek hope where little exists, placing excessive trust/reliance/expectations on individual members of staff; as well as being a symptom of denial, this can be particularly stressful for staff. Ventilation Achieving ‘normal’ blood gases with reduced functional alveolar space necessitates forcing larger volumes of gas and/or higher concentrations of oxygen into remaining alveoli. Increased intra-alveolar pressures cause shearing damage (Volotrauma’), while higher concentrations of oxygen may become toxic. Hence, the focus has shifted from normalising blood gases to recruiting alveoli, using smaller tidal volumes and accepting abnormally high arterial carbon dioxide tensions (permissive hypercapnia): Thomsen et al. Permissive hypercapnia should therefore be used cautiously or avoided with: ■ raised intracranial pressure ■ anoxic brain injury (e. Intensive care nursing 270 Pressure limited/controlled ventilation limits peak inflation pressure, and so also limits further volotrauma (Hudson 1995). While preventing or limiting further damage remains the main priority, gas exchange can be optimised by manipulating other aspects of ventilation. Nurses detecting increases in pulmonary pressures (indicative of pulmonary oedema) should alert medical staff. Inverse ratio ventilation increases mean (but not peak) airway pressure (Mulnier & Evans 1995), and prolonged inspiratory phases promote alveolar recruitment, while shorter expiratory phases prevent alveolar collapse. Perfluorocarbon associated gas exchange (liquid ventilation, see Chapter 29) appears to have potential, and is likely to be evaluated rigorously in the near future. However, Lewis and Veldhuizen (1996), while acknowledging that specific dose and intervals remain unknown and the prediction of which patients will benefit remains impossible, argue that exogenous surfactant has proved ineffective because it is given too late. Lung damage occurs in dependent areas, so nursing patients prone for 4 to 8 hours (Brett & Evans 1997) may increase functional residual capacity, improve diaphragmatic motion and help removal of secretions (Mulnier & Evans 1995). Lateral positioning, potentially easier to achieve, also benefits gas exchange (Hinds & Watson 1996). Acute respiratory distress syndrome 271 However, use of the prone position remains controversial (Thomas 1997). Studies consistently show improvements in oxygenation, reduction of shunting, reduced oxygen requirements and reduced mortality (Wong 1998), although available literature may be biased by reluctance to report unsuccessful cases (Ryan & Pelosi 1996). Nursing prone may more usefully prevent potential problems rather than resolve existing ones, and so should be instigated early; too often, like other promising approaches, nursing prone is used once other approaches have failed (Gosheron et al. Recommended duration of prone positioning varies from 30 minutes to 12 hours; Vollman’s (1997) 4–6 hours (drawn from literature review and substantial practice) is recommended until systematic evaluation provides more concrete guidelines. However, a major limitation on prone positioning is staff availability to turn patients. In the absence of suitable equipment (Thomas 1997), some units have experienced significant levels of staff injury from adopting prone positioning. Other nursing complications of prone positioning include access of intravenous lines, positioning of endotracheal and ventilator tubing and aggravation of cardiovascular instability (Thomas 1997). Systemic vasodilation limits intravenous doses, but nebulised prostacyclin has little systemic effect, (half-life being 3–4 minutes (Brett & Evans 1997)). Inhaled nitric oxide appears to have similar benefits (and problems) to nebulised prostacyclin. Steroids inhibit complement-induced leucocyte aggregation and reduce capillary permeability, and so may reduce lung injury (Meduri et al. Increased pulmonary permeability and pulmonary hypertension create excessive interstitial fluid (oedema); plasma albumin displaced into tissues creates an osmotic pull, accentuating tissue oedema and hypovolaemia. Fluid management therefore becomes a delicate balance of providing adequate total body hydration and adequate intravascular volume for perfusion without accentuating problems from oedema. Factors reducing oxygen delivery to tissues (oxygen dissociation curve, see Chapter 18), such as alkalosis, should be avoided. As intravascular volume is the likely main priority, colloids with long half-lives (see Chapter 33) increase colloid osmotic pressure, improving perfusion and potentially reducing oedema. Exogenous albumin has only transient benefits, increased membrane permeability allowing this to leak into tissue. Acute respiratory distress syndrome 273 Albumin levels will reverse as capillary permeability resolves with recovery. Early nutrition provides protein for endogenous albumin production, minimises muscle wasting and promotes immunity. Once commenced, nutrition should be adequate to meet metabolic needs (see Chapter 9). Cardiac management Cardiac management is a careful balance between attempting to meet systemic oxygen demand without causing excessive cardiac workloads. Inotropes may be used to increase cardiac output, with vasodilators to reduce afterload (so increasing perfusion). Some novel medical treatments promise significant benefits, but the mainstay of treatment remains system support. Clinical scenario Ann O’Reilly, a 45-year-old mother of six children who weighs 104 kg, was admitted to hospital for elective ligation of fallopian tubes using keyhole surgery. Initially Mrs O’ Reilly made a good recovery on the ward, but prior to discharge she presented with severe shortness of breath, fever and abdominal pains. Analyse the rationale underpinning this approach, and the resources required to implement this in your own clinical area. Appraise potential adverse effects of prone positioning with Ann and propose nursing strategies to minimise or prevent occurrence (e. Chapter 28 Nitric oxide Fundamental knowledge Alveoli: structure and pulmonary circulation Introduction Nitric oxide has diverse effects throughout much of the body, some beneficial some harmful. It is a potent vasodilator, possibly responsible for profound vasodilatation from septic shock (Groeneveld et al. This chapter describes the chemistry of nitric oxide, which explains both its therapeutic benefits and problems. As nitric oxide is potentially toxic, nurses who are aware of potential problems can minimise risks to themselves and to others. Greenbaum’s 1967 animal experiments, following the fatal accidental exposure of two patients the previous year, confirmed concerns about nitric oxide. Exposing dogs to 5,000–20,000 parts per million (ppm) caused ■ hypoxia from methaemoglobin ■ right to left shunting from pulmonary oedema ■ acidemia Intensive care nursing 276 ■ acid pneumonitis (from conversion of nitrous oxide into nitric oxide), reducing lung compliance Greenbaum concluded that nitric oxide could rapidly be fatal (Frostell et al. Physiology Hypoxia (from hypoperfusion or platelet aggregation) causes smooth muscle epithelium to release nitric oxide synthesase, which converts L-arginine into nitric oxide (Ganong 1995). Being a gas, nitric oxide diffuses rapidly across cell membranes, initiating a chemical cascade which dilates smooth muscle (see Figure 28.Share this