By B. Sinikar. East-West University.
Whilst regulation has an important role to play in reducing harm cheap 90mg priligy with visa, it is clear that addressing the social conditions and low levels of wellbeing that underlie most problematic use of crack buy priligy 60 mg on line, and other drugs purchase priligy 90 mg on line, is the key to reducing such harmful behaviours in the longer term priligy 30mg discount. While even the most chaotic heroin users will respond to regular prescriptions that satisfy their needs, crack users will often binge frequently and uncontrollably. While heroin users may accept substitute prescriptions such as methadone, no such alternatives for crack exist. Research continues into a range of possibilities, including prescrip- 69 tion of substitute stimulants such as amphetamines and Modafnil, or 70 use of less potent cocaine preparations. This is clearly an area of research that requires substantially more attention and investment. The need for such research is becoming increasingly urgent as the growing concurrent use of crack and heroin makes managing crack related issues more and more diffcult. Arguably, this development in crack usage is another unintended consequence of prohibition. It has been driven by the supply infrastructure and underground culture that has grown up around the illicit opiate market—a market and a culture that legalisation and consequent regulation would actively and directly help dismantle. Crack could of course be prohibited, but regulation frameworks should also acknowledge that if powder cocaine is available—either legally or illicitly on sale, or on prescription—then crack is effectively available too. Making crack from powder cocaine is a simple kitchen procedure, and one that is impossible to prevent. Even if crack were not directly available, determined users previously willing to enter a dirty and dangerous illegal market to procure it would clearly not lack the moti- vation to manufacture it from a legal powder cocaine supply. More positively, basic crack harm reduction methods are becoming reasonably well established. For example, Vancouver is one of a number of locations that distributes crack harm reduction kits, and some tenta- tive experiments have also begun with supervised consumption venues 71 for crack use. These interventions point towards a model in which, 69 A useful summary: Kampman, ‘The search for medications to treat stimulant dependence’, Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, 4(2), 2008, pages 28–35. This kind of legally accessible cocaine powder/supervised crack consumption venue model creates clear potential for reductions in the personal and social harms created by the current illicit crack market. These reductions are of suffcient magnitude to outweigh the poten- tial increase in health harms that might result for some users from a lowering of the cost availability barrier that constrains crack use for lower income chaotic users. It is also worth noting that, even for the most chaotic of those users, crack use is not infnite. There are also clear lessons to be learned from historic provision of heroin and other opiate prescribing and harm reduction services such as supervised injecting venues. Lessons from these experiences suggest that engaging directly and constructively with problem users’ immediate needs, through harm reduction or other service provision, has a very clearly defned positive impact. In particular, it increases the likelihood that they will not only use drugs more safely and moder- ately, and do so in a safer peer environment, but that they will also come into contact with, and be more likely to utilise the wider service provisions on offer. Prohibition creates unregulated markets, driven by very clearly defned economic 72 processes. One effect of these is to encourage the creation and use of more potent drugs or concentrated drug preparations, which are more proftable per unit weight. This is directly comparable to the way that, under alcohol prohibition, the trade in beer and wines gave way to sales of more concentrated, proftable and dangerous spirits. For example, in opiate marketplaces, opium (either smoked or served in drinkable form) has been replaced by injectable heroin. More recently, the illegal cannabis market has become increas- ingly saturated with more potent indoor-grown varieties. Before its prohibition, the most popular forms of cocaine use were low-risk coca leaf chewing and coca-based tea and wine drinks. Snorted cocaine powder was frst introduced onto the streets as a result of the demands of prohibition created illicit markets. These same market pressures fnally led to the development and emergence of high-risk smokable crack. It is notable that the market for cocaine (outside of the Andean regions) is currently defned by the fact that only the strongest and most risky forms of the drug are available. This is especially the case if the regulatory gradients described in chapter 3, page 39, were applied with this specifc aim. The heroin and crack markets have meshed within a comparatively short period—most crack users are also heroin users. If these illegal networks were dismantled through the introduc- tion of regulated supply, the next new drug ‘epidemic’ would be far less likely to take hold. Price controls > Fixed unit prices or minimum/maximum prices could be specifed—with taxation potentially included on a per unit weight or % basis. Summary information and prominent warnings on containers and sachets would be augmented by a more detailed printed information insert in the container. Advertising/promotion > Total ban on all advertising and promotion—including strict controls on appearance/ signage of outlets. Volume sales/rationing controls > There would need to be a realistic acceptance that some degree of sharing would take place in social settings, even if sales are volume limited for personal use only. Volume of sales per purchaser (per day/week/month) would correspondingly have an upper limit established (and/or escalating price/volume structure). Licences for purchasers/users > In the frst instance at least (certainly for pilot schemes) a system would be established under which only licensed individuals would be allowed access for personal use only. Limitations in allowed locations for consumption > Public consumption would be a fneable offence in most locations. Potential models for regulation of lower strength cocaine preparations As already highlighted, coca tea has a usage and public health profile in the Andean regions not dissimilar to that of coffee and conventional tea in much of the rest of the world. There is no reason why it could not be made more widely available on a similar basis, 74 for those who desire it. Its use in the short to medium term would be likely to remain largely within its cultural homeland. On an international level, it would probably find most market share in the speciality tea market. There is no particular reason to think it would replace or seriously encroach on coffee and tea markets where they are established. They might also compete in the substantial, and rapidly growing higher caffeine content ‘energy drinks’ market, sharing shelf space with products like Red Bull. Whilst coca tea has a natural limit to its active content, processed beverages would not. They would therefore have to be subject to additional tiers of regulation, so that active content could be controlled and limited, appropriate information incorporated into labelling and packaging, and other appropriate controls with regards to advertising/promotions established. Such drinks would presumably (depending on active content levels and related risk assessments) be made available under a licensed sales model similar to that governing alcohol sales. Alternatively, they might only be available over the counter in pharmacies, as Red Bull is in certain European countries. Of course, such regulation might not just cover coca based drinks; there is a strong case that the packaging, promotion and availability of some caffeine based energy drinks should also be more 75 strictly regulated. Such coca based beverages have the potential to absorb some of the user demand for cocaine powder. Many recreational consumers, if given a choice, would prefer a stimulant beverage that has a safer, slower release effect than that of a snorted powder. This preference could be further encouraged by using pricing and availability controls to make coca based energy beverages more attractive than snorted powder alternatives. Such a development could both be a benefcial form of risk reduc- tion, and potentially contribute to a more moderate and responsible culture of stimulant consumption—a culture which has, in the past few decades, moved in the opposite direction. Regulators would, however, need to consider the particular risks of such products being consumed 75 Such calls have increasingly come from a variety of medical authorities. Griffths, ‘Caffeinated energy drinks—a growing problem’, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, January 1, 2009. They should be aware, for example, how cocaine use has been associated with problem- atic patterns of drinking. Illustrating this potential concern is the rise of caffeine-based energy drink/alcohol spirit cocktails in some markets. The popular Red Bull and vodka cocktail is perhaps the most visible example of this.
Furthermore discount priligy 60 mg fast delivery, the studied variables have been mainly contradictory in differenstudies and are thus nouseful in explaining compliance (Morris and Schulz 1992) buy priligy 30mg on line. A quarr of a century afr the publication of firsbook purchase 90mg priligy fast delivery, Brian Haynes and his colleagues (2002) commenthathere is a need for studies thaare able to improve compliance priligy 90mg otc. Furthermore, the studies 16 thahave successfully used long-rm medications have been complex, and abest, have had only modesffects on non-compliance. In the lirature, when defining compliance there seems to be a common thoughthathe patient�s behaviour is the exclusive reason for non-compliance, withoutaking into accounthe roles of the physician, the health care organization and the patient-doctor relationship, which mighshow non-compliance to be due to concordance problems between the patienand health care professionals (Lutfey and Wishner 1999, Nilsson 2002). The problem with the rm �compliance� has been the perception thathe patienreceives commands from healthcare professionals. Therefore, the rm �concordance� was recently introduced, which looks acompliance from a differenperspective. Iis an agreemenreached afr negotiation between a patienand a healthcare professional tharespects the beliefs and wishes of the patienin dermining whether, when, and how medicines are to be taken� (Dickinson eal. The patient�s views should be taken into accounven if s/he does noactively participa in the decision-making process (Elwyn eal 2003). The making of maximally well- informed treatmendecisions is one of the keys to concordance (Dickinson eal. Thus, one importanrole of the physician is to ensure thathe patienhas adequa access to information and, when necessary provide an inrpretation of this information to the patien(Kennedy 2003). Furthermore, if the patienlets you know thas/he does nowanto take a certain medicine, the reasons for thashould be discussed (Elwyn eal 2003). Iis nomeaningful to discuss compliance when a patienhas been offered treatmenthas/he finds unacceptable because of ethical/moral or religious reasons, while concordance does nopresena problem in a corresponding situation. The patienhence has the righto choose whether or nos/he accepts the medication, and the health care professional should accepthis as a parof the process of moving from compliance to concordance (Heath 2003). However, there mighbe some situations where the use of �concordance� and the patienas a decision-maker are problematic. These are clinical trials where almosfull compliance is needed to ensure reliable results (Milburn and Cochrane 1997). The research on human medication-taking behaviour is also relad to compliance and thus 17 nosuitable for the �concordance� concep(Milburn and Cochrane 1997). Furthermore, �concordance� is nouseful in the case of pontially fatal infectious diseases because persons with this kind of disease will risk the health of other people by infecting them and contributing to bacrial resistance againsantibiotics (Milburn and Cochrane 1997). Ihas also been suggesd thathe decision to involve the patieninto decision-making should be made individually in each case by taking into accountheir comprehension and decision-making abilities (Lakshmi 1999, Lamon1999). Patients come to seek help from a physician, and if the decision-making is repeadly lefto the patiens/he may ultimaly lose respecfor the physician (Carvel 1999). However, the patienas a co- worker is essential for effective discussion between the patienand the physician, where mutual understanding will lead to a rapid diagnosis, and discussion of treatmenchoices may lead to a higher probability of good compliance (Slowie 1999). Patients need clear, unambiguous information abouthings thamatr to them, and physicians need practical tools for sharing thainformation (Jones 2003). Furthermore, the biggesfuture challenge for the concepof concordance will be the need of health care professionals to adopnew values (Jones 2003). Furthermore, iwas found among treatment-resistanhypernsive patients with a three-drug combination thaone-third of the patients� blood pressure values were normalized by using compliance monitoring alone (Burnier eal 2001). However, a recenreview of compliance with antihypernsive medication, which included studies where electronic devices had been used to measure compliance, concluded thathere is no convincing evidence to suppor18 the association between non-compliance and blood pressure control (Wetzels eal 2004). Either our antihypernsive drugs are ineffective or our methods of measuring compliance are inadequa. Non-compliance is a universal problem, and ialso concerns possible life-threaning conditions (Wrigh1993). A recenstudy of renal transplanpatients indicad thala acu rejections were more prevalenamong non-complianpatients with immunosuppressive therapy (Vlaminck eal 2004). Non-compliance in organ transplanrecipients usually also ranged between 20% and 50% and was associad with grafloss and death (Laederach-Hofmann and Bunzel 2000). Noven patienducation is enough to ensure good compliance of patients with organ transplants. In these cases the importanissue is thathe grafthahas been losbecause of non-compliance could have been transpland into somebody else, who mighhave lived with a trasnsplanbudied while waiting for the graf(Laederach- Hofmann and Bunzel 2000). Studies have also shown thagood compliance with placebo has been associad with betr treatmenoutcomes than non-compliance with the use of placebo tablets (Horwitz and Horwitz 1993). Unwillingness to take medicines is a profound and widespread problem (Vermeire eal 2001). Ihas been suggesd, possibly with humour, tharesearch on patients� medication-taking could be called reality-based medicine to distinguish ifrom evidence-based medicine (Chapman 2000). The crucial questions in the efforts to control chronic diseases are: Do patients follow the instructions and take their drugs, and how well are the physicians aware of this (Chapman 2000)? For the physician, iis naturally much easier to wri oua prescription than spend annoying moments discussing the patient�s attitudes towards medication-taking (Chapman 2000). However, iis the health care personnel�s responsibility to understand the help-seeking patient�s view (Delgado 2000). Maybe we should nopay atntion to compliance, burather to our ability to understand and participa in patients� decision-making processes aboutheir medication-taking (Donovan and Blake 1992). Patients today make their decisions aboumedication- 19 taking on their own, busimple information sharing would allow them to make decisions thabetr fitheir life situation and beliefs and would also offer the view of modern medicine abouthe benefits and harmful effects of drugs (Donovan and Blake 1992). The advice given by the physician needs to compe with many other opinions before the patiendecides abouwhether or nos/he will follow the physician�s advice aboutreatmen(Donovan and Blake 1992). Iis up to the physician to make sure thathe patienlls abouall of his/her medication problems and to offer enough information to make the patienconvinced of the suitability of his/her medication (DiMato 1994). Even when the patienaccepts the treatmenprescribed to him/her, success dependenon how difficuliis to follow the treatmeninstructions and whether s/he receives supporin the treatmenprocess (DiMato 1994). Compliance with long-rm medications in differendiseases seems to be abou50% (Sacketand Snow 1979). Compliance of 50% may mean thahalf of the patients stopped taking their medication, or thapatients consume an average of 50% of the medications prescribed to them (Farmer 1999). A patienwho takes an average 50% of the medications prescribed to him/her may take half of the medications every day or all the medications every second day or engage in various combinations of taking and notaking medications. Aparfrom this, non-compliance may manifesamany differenstages of medication-taking behaviour. In long-rm treatment, compliance may change when the life situation changes and otherwise over time (Kyngas eal 2000). Furthermore, patients may be complianwith certain instructions bunowith others (Kyngas eal 2000). Therefore, in hypernsion research, 80 percenhas ofn been used as the limifor acceptable compliance. However, all cases of non-compliance should be checked whether one dosage or more and abandoning the 80% limiwould offer benefits (Barber 2002). In organ transplanrecipients, compliance has been differentiad into clinical non- compliance and subclinical non-compliance (Laederach-Hofmann and Bunzel 2000). Clinical non-compliance refers to clinically measurable events, such as rejection episodes, graflosses and death. Subclinical non-compliance is shown by patients who have been identified to be non-compliant, buwho have noyehad clinically observed adverse effects (Laederach-Hofmann and Bunzel 2000). Whi-coacompliance has been used to describe the phenomenon, of an approaching office visiimproving compliance, because ifunctions as a reminder or a threa(Feinsin 1990). This mporary improvemenof compliance has been compared to dental visits, before which people brush their eth with higher probability (Feinsin 1990). Compliance has also been differentiad into full compliance, partial compliance and total non-compliance (Feinsin 1990). Partial compliance is shown by patients who take enough medicines to be considered to accepthe principles of treatment, buofn they do notake or take the dosages so la, thathey do noreach the full benefits of treatmen(Feinsin 1990). The rm inlligennon-compliance has been applied to situations, where deviation from the physician�s instructions improves the patient�s health. Drug holidays refer to situations where the patienrepeadly and suddenly discontinues his/her medication for aleasone day and then suddenly resumes iagain (Laederach-Hofmann and Bunzel 2000).
Similarly buy priligy 30 mg mastercard, acute stabilization and withdrawal management are most effective when following evidence- based standards of care purchase priligy 90mg visa. Studies have found that half to three quarters of individuals with substance use disorders who receive withdrawal management services do not enter treatment buy cheap priligy 30mg on line. For example buy cheap priligy 30mg line, 27 percent of people who received detoxifcation services not followed by continuing care were readmitted within 1 year to public detoxifcation services in Delaware, Oklahoma, and Washington. Because withdrawal management reduces much of an individual’s acquired tolerance, those who attempt to re-use their former substance in the same amount or frequency can experience physical problems. Individuals with opioid use disorders may be left particularly vulnerable to overdose and even death. It is critically important for health care providers to be prepared to properly assess the nature and severity of their patients’ clinical problems following withdrawal so that they can facilitate engagement into the appropriate intensity of treatment. For this reason, the majority of research has been performed within these specialty settings. Adolescent substance use needs to be identifed affects brain function and behavior. Adolescents can beneft from a drug abuse intervention even if they are not addicted to a 3. Routine annual medical visits are an opportunity to the individual, not just his or her drug abuse. Behavioral therapies—including individual, family, to enter, stay in, and complete treatment. Treatment should address the needs of the whole treatment for many patients, especially when person, rather than just focusing on his or her drug combined with counseling and other behavioral use. Medically assisted detoxifcation is only the frst stage of addiction treatment and by itself does 10. Sensitive issues such as violence and child abuse or little to change long-term drug abuse. Staying in treatment for an adequate period continuously, as lapses during treatment do occur. However, unlike treatments for most other medical illnesses, substance use disorder treatment has traditionally been provided in programs (both residential and outpatient) outside of the mainstream health care system. The intensity of the treatment regimens offered can vary substantially across program types. Relapse rates for substance(s) used, severity of substance substance use disorders (40 to 60 percent) are comparable use disorder, comorbidities, and the individual’s preferences. Treatment Planning Assessment and Diagnosis Among the frst steps involved in substance use disorder treatment are assessment and diagnosis. The diagnosis of substance use disorders is based primarily on the results of a clinical interview. Several assessment instruments are available to help structure and elicit the information required to diagnose 1 substance use disorders. The number of diagnostic symptoms present defnes the severity of the disorder, ranging from mild to severe (i. This assessment is important in determining the intensity of care that will be recommended and the composition of the treatment plan. Individualized Treatment Planning After a formal assessment, the information is discussed with the patient to jointly develop a personalized treatment plan designed to address the patient’s needs. Individualized treatment plans should consider age, gender identity, race and ethnicity, language, health literacy, religion/spirituality, sexual orientation, culture, trauma history, and co-occurring physical and mental health problems. Such considerations are critical for understanding the individual and for tailoring the treatment to his or her specifc needs. This increases the likelihood of successful treatment engagement and retention, and research shows that those who participate more fully in treatment typically have better outcomes. For example, treatment programs that provide gender-specifc and gender-responsive care are more likely to enhance women’s treatment outcomes. For example, American Indians or Alaska Natives may require specifc elements in their treatment plan that respond to their unique cultural experiences and to intergenerational and historical trauma and trauma from violent encounters. A disaster can disrupt a program’s ability to provide treatment services or an individual’s ability to maintain treatment. Individuals in recovery, for example, may relapse due to sudden discontinuation of services or stress when having to cope with effects of a disaster. Treatment Setting and the Continuum of Care As indicated above, the treatment of addiction is delivered in predominantly freestanding programs that differ in their setting (hospital, residential, or outpatient); in the frequency of care delivery (daily sessions to monthly visits); in the range of treatment components offered; and in the planned duration of care. In general, as patients progress in treatment and begin to meet the goals of their individualized treatment plan, they transfer from clinical management in residential or intensive outpatient programs to less clinically intensive outpatient programs that promote patient self-management. For many patients whose current living situations See Chapter 5 - Recovery: The Many are not conducive to recovery, outpatient services should be Paths to Wellness. In general, patients with serious substance use disorders are recommended to stay engaged for at least 1 year in the treatment process, which may involve participation in three to four different programs or services at reduced levels of intensity, all of which are ideally designed to help the patient prepare for continued self-management after treatment ends. Brief summaries of the major levels of the treatment continuum are discussed below. Medically monitored and managed inpatient care is an intensive 1 service delivered in an acute, inpatient hospital setting. These programs typically provide support, structure, and an array of evidence-based clinical services. Partial hospitalization and intensive outpatient services range from counseling and education to clinically intensive programming. Outpatient services provide both group and individual behavioral interventions and medications when appropriate. Typically, outpatient programs are appropriate as the initial level of care for individuals with a mild to moderate substance use disorder or as continuing care after completing more intensive treatment. These include developed to inform the public and to guide individual choices about treatment. Treatment 1 programs that offer more of these evidence-based components have the greatest likelihood of producing better outcomes. Currently, no approved medications are available to treat marijuana, amphetamine, or cocaine use disorders. Physicians who wish to prescribe Sublingual tablet: buprenorphine, must obtain a 1. However, it is considered the preferred formulation for pregnant patients, patients with hepatic impairment, and patients with sensitivity to naloxone. It is also used for initiating treatment in patients transferring from methadone, in preference to products containing naloxone, because of the risk of precipitating withdrawal in these patients. Extended- 380mg/vial disorder Act release injectable naltrexone is recommended to prevent relapse to opioids or alcohol. The prescriber need not be a physician, but must be licensed and authorized to prescribe by the state. Acamprosate Alcohol Delayed-release tablet: Not Provided by prescription; use 333mg Scheduled acamprosate is used in the disorder under the maintenance of alcohol Controlled abstinence. The prescriber need Substances not be a physician, but must Act be licensed and authorized to prescribe by the state. Disulfram Alcohol Tablet: Not When taken in combination with use 250mg, 500mg Scheduled alcohol, disulfram causes severe disorder under the physical reactions, including Controlled nausea, fushing, and heart Substances palpitations. The knowledge that Act such a reaction is likely if alcohol is consumed acts as a deterrent to drinking. For these reasons, only appropriately trained health care professionals should decide whether medication is needed as part of treatment, how the medication is provided in the context of other clinical services, and under what conditions the medication should be withdrawn or terminated. Prescribed in this fashion, medications for substance use disorders are in some ways like insulin for patients with diabetes. Insulin reduces symptoms by normalizing glucose metabolism, but it is part of a broader disease control strategy that also employs diet change, education on healthy living, and self-monitoring. A chemical substance that use of methadone as an effective treatment for opioid use binds to and activates certain receptors disorder. Long-term methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorders has been shown to be more effective than short-term withdrawal management,132 and it has demonstrated improved outcomes for individuals (including pregnant women and their infants) with opioid use disorders. Under regulations dating back to the early 1970s, the federal government created special methadone programs for adults with opioid use disorders.
Workforce issues related to: Physical and behavioral healthcare integration: Specifically substance use disorders and primary care discount 90 mg priligy visa. A national review of state alcohol and drug treatment programs and certification standards for substance abuse counselors and prevention professionals buy 30mg priligy amex. Prescription drug monitoring programs: An assessment of the evidence for best practices cheap priligy 90 mg line. Evaluation of the Medicaid health home option for beneficiaries with chronic conditions: Final annual report - base year best 30 mg priligy. Cost, utilization, and quality of care: An evaluation of Illinois’ Medicaid primary care case management program. Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home. Accountable health communities — Addressing social needs through Medicare and Medicaid. On the road to better value: State roles in promoting accountable care organizations. Community‐clinical linkages to improve hypertension identification, management, and control. Institute of Medicine, Roundtable on Population Health Improvement, & Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. Integrating buprenorphine maintenance therapy into federally qualifed health centers: Real-world substance abuse treatment outcomes. Health coaching via an internet portal for primary care patients with chronic conditions: A randomized controlled trial. Eligible professional meaningful use table of contents core and menu set objectives. Meaningful adoption: What we know or think we know about the fnancing, effectiveness, quality, and safety of electronic medical records. Challenges and opportunities for integrating preventive substance-use-care services in primary care through the Affordable Care Act. Personal health record reach in the Veterans Health Administration: A cross- sectional analysis. Electronic patient portals: evidence on health outcomes, satisfaction, efciency, and attitudes: A systematic review. Integrating information on substance use disorders into electronic health record systems. Development of a prescription opioid registry in an integrated health system: Characteristics of prescription opioid use. Alcohol and drug use and aberrant drug-related behavior among patients on chronic opioid therapy. Opioid overdose prevention programs providing naloxone to laypersons— United States, 2014. Integrated treatment continuum for substance use dependence “Hub/Spoke” Initiative—Phase 1: Opiate dependence. Embedding prevention, treatment, and recovery services into the larger health care system will increase access to care, improve quality of services, and produce improved outcomes for countless Americans. A national opioid overdose epidemic has captured the attention of the public as well as federal, state, local, and tribal leaders across the country. Ongoing efforts to reform health care and criminal justice systems are creating new opportunities to increase access to prevention and treatment services. Health care reform and parity laws are providing signifcant opportunities and incentives to address substance misuse and related disorders more effectively in diverse health care settings. These changes represent new opportunities to create policies and practices that are more evidence-informed to address health and social problems related to substance misuse. The moral obligation to address substance misuse and substance use disorders effectively for all Americans also aligns with a strong economic imperative. Substance misuse and substance use disorders are estimated to cost society $442 billion each year in health care costs, lost productivity, and criminal justice costs. More than 10 million full-time workers in our nation have a substance use disorder—a leading cause of disability —and3 studies have demonstrated that prevention and treatment programs for employees with substance use disorders are cost effective in improving worker productivity. It aims to understand and address and Related Consequences” in Chapter 1 - Introduction and Overview. The following fve general messages described within the Report have important implications for policy and practice. These are followed by specifc evidence-based suggestions for the roles individuals, families, organizations, and communities can play in more effectively addressing this major health issue. Both substance misuse and substance use disorders harm the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Substance misuse is the use of alcohol or illicit or prescription drugs in a manner that may cause harm to users or to those around them. Harms can include overdoses, interpersonal violence, motor vehicle crashes, as well as injuries, homicides, and suicides—the leading causes of death in adolescents and young adults (aged 12 to 25). These disorders involve9 See Chapter 2 - The Neurobiology of impaired control over substance use that results from Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction. Substance use disorders 1 occur along a continuum from mild to severe; severe substance use disorders are also called addictions. Because substances have particularly powerful effects on the developing adolescent brain, young adults who misuse substances are at increased risk of developing a substance use disorder at some point in their lives. Implications for Policy and Practice Expanding access to effective, evidence-based treatments for those with addiction and also less severe substance use disorders is critical, but broader prevention programs and policies are also essential to reduce substance misuse and the pervasive health and social problems caused by it. Although they cannot address the chronic, severe impairments common among individuals with substance use disorders, education, regular monitoring, and even modest legal sanctions may signifcantly reduce substance misuse in the wider population. Many policies at the federal, state, local, and tribal levels that aim to reduce the harms associated with substance use have proven very effective in preventing and reducing alcohol misuse (e. These programs also provide the opportunity to engage people who inject drugs in treatment. These types of effective prevention policies can and should be adapted and extended to reduce the injuries, disabilities, and deaths caused by substance misuse. Highly effective community-based prevention programs and policies exist and should be widely implemented. This Report describes the signifcant advances in prevention science over the past two decades, including the identifcation of major risk and protective factors and the development of more than four dozen research-tested prevention interventions that can be delivered in households, schools, clinical settings, and community centers. First, science has shown that adolescence and young adulthood are major “at risk” periods for substance misuse and related harms. Second, most of the major genetic, social, and environmental risk factors that predict substance misuse also predict many other serious adverse outcomes and risks. Third, several community-delivered prevention programs and policies have been shown to signifcantly reduce rates of substance-use initiation and misuse-related harms. Prevention programs and interventions can have a strong impact and be cost-effective, but only if evidence-based components are used and if those components are delivered in a coordinated and consistent fashion throughout the at-risk period. Parents, schools, health care systems, faith communities, and social service organizations should be involved in delivering comprehensive, evidence-based community prevention programs that are sustained over time. Additionally, research has demonstrated that policies and environmental strategies are highly effective in reducing alcohol-related problems by focusing on the social, political, and economic contexts in which these problems occur. These evidence-based policies include regulating alcohol outlet density, restricting hours and days of sale, and policies to increase the price of alcohol at the federal, state, or local level. Implications for Policy and Practice To be effective, prevention programs and policies should be designed to address the common risk and protective factors that infuence the most common health threats affecting young people. They should be tested through research and should be delivered continuously throughout the entire at-risk period by those who have been properly trained and supervised to use them. Federal and state funding incentives could increase the number of properly organized community coalitions using effective prevention practices that adhere to commonly defned standards. The research reviewed in this Report suggests that such coordinated efforts could signifcantly improve the impact of existing prevention funding, programs, and policies, enhancing quality of life for American families and communities. Full integration of the continuum of services for substance use disorders with the rest of health care could signifcantly improve the quality, effectiveness, and safety of all health care. Individuals with substance use disorders at all levels of severity can beneft from treatment, and research shows that integrating substance use disorder treatment into mainstream health care can improve the quality of treatment services. Historically, however, only individuals with the most severe substance use disorders have received treatment, and only in independent “addiction treatment programs” that were originally designed in the early 1960s to treat addictions as personality or character disorders.
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